3 The Third Punic war
was officially brought to an end in 1985 when the Mayor of Rome and the Mayor of Carthage met to sign a treaty of friendship.
The Second Punic War
, where Hannibal famously marched his elephants across the Alps in a failed attack on Rome, has been regarded as one of the pivotal events of European history.
After Hannibal's death in 181-183 BC, Carthage's fortunes flipped when it was colonised by the Romans after the Third Punic War
Lewis examines six major wars, devoting one chapter each to the Greco-Persian wars, the Theban wars, the Second Punic War
, the campaigns of the Roman emperor Aurelian, the American Civil War, and two chapters to World War II.
He describes Rome before and after the First Punic War
and its expansion in Italy, the Mediterranean, and beyond; its expansion in Italy and the East from 238 to 228 BC; the Gallic War; and the consequences of expansion, including the Second Illyrian War and Carthaginian expansion in Spain and the Roman response.
He was leading the armies of Carthage, from north Africa, against the emerging Roman Empire during the second Punic War
This project, therefore, includes a quantitative study of the productive capacity of the Carthaginian empire in the late third century BC; an analysis of the logistics during the Second Punic War
(218-201 BC); an appreciation of the relationship of war veterans with agricultural production at this chronological context; and a comparison of these results with those obtained in a specific casus: a survey of part of the territory under the rule of the Phoenician city of Utica, a North-African city under the Carthaginian rule.
The Romans routinely destroyed whole cities of their enemies, such as Carthage following the Third Punic War
The Third Punic War
finally saw Carthage fall to Rome, though the city was later reconstructed as New Carthage.
Even Polybius' later collaboration with Rome n his presence in the Roman camp during the Third Punic War
, and his mediation with the Roman authorities at the end of the Achaean War--does not indicate any conversion; Baronowski's analysis of the multiple and complex reasons behind Polybius' political decisions in this difficult period is definitely one of the best parts of the book.
Beyond the first chapter, which opens with a dazzling scene of young Hannibal watching his baby brother sacrificed to appease Baal Hammon (based on Jakob Seibert's speculation in Hannibal  that Hamilcar Barca had four sons, the youngest of which was a victim of Carthage's notorious practice of human sacrifice), the book is not so much a biography as it is a fairly standard, albeit well-written and solidly argued, military analysis of the Second Punic War
Cabiria is set against the backdrop of the second Punic war
during the third century BC.