1904 and 1908, 272 companies registered with the Qing government
These four chapters build on a large body of existing institutional history, but Wang does a remarkable job synthesizing it with new material, and makes a convincing argument that it was the conjuncture of crises that allowed Jiaqing to reform and renew Qing government
The Qing government
arranged circumstances to its own satisfaction, as bodies addressed gave way to simplified reports and severed remains.
The Qing government
proved to be more successful in meeting these challenges and was able to maintain its territorial integrity, while the Ottoman government lost significant territories both to rebellion and in foreign wars.
The Ming Dynasty adopted the principle of unlimited territorial jurisdiction such that "in all cases where persons beyond the pale of civilisation commit crimes, they shall all be judged in accordance with the Code" (37) The Qing Government
argued that, since aliens have attached themselves to the empire, when they commit offences they should be punished in the same way as ordinary Chinese subjects.
Second, as Yongjin Zhang insists, it is true that western countries first approached China to gain favor from the Qing government
before the nineteenth century.
25) Consequently, the Qing government
"looked east" for international law instructors.
A practice used by the Qing government
to regulate monopolized business inspired the first American bank deposit insurance statute, the Safety Fund Act of 1829, he says, which in turn became the basis for national bank deposit insurance in the US beginning in 1933.
The agreement reduced the one-sided financial burden of tribute trade on the Qing government
and increased revenue through the coexistence of tariff trade and tribute trade.
Even memoirs written by the pro-Qing elite suggest a loss of trust in the Qing government
and condemn military destruction by both Qing and Taiping forces.
Thus, the Qing government
actively attempted, albeit unsuccessfully, to spatially police the commercial playhouses in Beijing from 1770 to 1900.
Thus, without taking into account land sale proceeds and state enterprise profits that went into government coffers, today's relative fiscal income is 238 times as large as that for the mid-18th century imperial Qing government
and more than three times as large as just 18 years ago.