To this end, it is worth looking back at a system that between the 1880s and 1930s saw widespread use over unions in many industries -- the quarter badge system.
The importance of the quarter badge system cannot be over-estimated.
By March of 1890 a closed shop was felt to be impractical and so the quarter badge system was utilised instead.
The employers viewed the quarter badge system as a surreptitious means of achieving a closed shop by semi-clandestine organisation.
The quarter badge system had proved to be a most effective means of membership control, but like everything else was susceptible to the employers suppressing it if the opportunity presented itself.
Devine relates how the Irish Transport & General Workers' Union's use of the quarter badge in the 1940s illustrates an element of militant particularism.
In this instance the use of the quarter badge was deviating from its original purpose and creating internal dissent.
The employers ultimately gave out tallies to their own preferred men as the union quarter badge system proved impossible to stamp out, thus attempting to establish a parallel system of employment for ~free labour' (i.e, non-unionised).
The quarter badge system may once again prove to be a useful tool in such circumstances.