In Florida, avian species in the families Cardinalidae (northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis), Columbidae (mourning dove, Zenaida macroura), Corvidae (blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata), and Icteridae (common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula
) are frequently exposed to SLEV (14).
In previous studies, numerous avian species like European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus), feral pigeons (Columba livia), red- winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula
), brown headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), Canada geese (Branta canadensis), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), cedar waxwings (Bomby cillacedrorum) and yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) also showed the similar results and suppress the depredations when seeds treated with anthraquinone and methylanthranilate were provided to the birds (Cummings et al., 1998).
Only the feral dog and a few avian species [e.g., dickcissel (Spiza americana) and the common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula
)] plotted high on both DCA axes I and II, showing association with small sites without pools or significant woody vegetat ion (Figure 4).The region of the DCA plane defined by low values of DCA I and II corresponded to larger, brushy sites with permanent pools that were speciose, being populated by reptiles [e.g., mud turtle (Kinostemon subrubrum) and skinks (Eumeces spp.)], birds [e.g., Louisiana waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla) and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griscus)], and numerous amphibians [e.g., tree frogs (Hyla spp.) and toads (Bufo spp)].
phellos) and other species of acorns are concentrated around the embryo in the apical end of the acorn and that gray squirrels, blue jays, and grackles (Quiscalus quiscula
) avoid most of the tannins by eating the basal half of the acorns and discarding or caching the apical portion.
Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula
) kill hatchling turtles of other species (e.g., Vogt 1980) and attack live hatchling T.
For example, data on the range and dispersal behavior of the common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula
) and the yellow-shafted flicker (Colaptes auratus auratus) (National Geographic Society 1983; Moore and Buchanan 1985; Howell and Webb 1995) lead to estimates for their dispersal variances of [[Sigma].sup.2] = 0.03 and [[Sigma].sup.2] = 0.06, respectively, after standardizing by the size of each species' range.
Mitochondrial DNA variation, population structure, and evolution of the Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula
Bark lice (Liposcelis) were in nests of 11 species, including yellow-billed cuckoos (Coccyzus americanus), eastern phoebes (Sayornis phoebe), blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), marsh wrens (Telmatodytes palustris), American robins (Turdus migratorius), gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis), brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum), rose-breasted grosbeaks (Pheucticus ludovicianus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula
), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus).
Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula
).--Butler (1898) considered Q.
Bartonella species detected in birds * Bird common name Bird species House sparrow Passer domesticus Boat-tailed grackle Quiscalus major Mourning dove Zenaida macroura Herring gulil ([dagger]) Larus argentatus House finch Carpodacus mexicanus Blue jay Cyanocitta cristata Song sparrow Melospiza melodia Northern cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis Northern mockingbird Mimus polyglottos European starling Sturnus vulgaris Red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus Brown thrasher Toxostoma rufum Tufted titmouse Baeolophus bicolor Red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus Common grackle Quiscalus quiscula
Common loon ([dagger]) Gavia immer Red-headed woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus Brown pelican ([dagger]) Pelicanus occidentalis Collared dove Streptopelia decaocto No.
Predators of nests of eastern meadowlarks include fox snakes (Elaphne vulpina), eastern garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon), bullsnakes (Pituophis catenifer), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula
), corvids, Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), foxes, coyotes (Canis latrans), domestic cats (Felis catus), and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris; Bent, 1958; Lanyon, 1995; Granfors et al., 1996; Renfrew and Ribic, 2003; Kershner et al., 2004; Suedkamp Wells et al., 2007).