Another striking challenge in this experiment was the unpredictable exchange rates, as the funding was provided in Colombian pesos (COPs) and the costs for rawinsondes
, receiver systems, and balloons were quoted and purchased in U.S.
Specifically, standard and mesonet surface observations, ACARS observations, maritime observations, and rawinsondes
Embedding during Exercise Blue Chromite 16, the team successfully deployed two upper air tactical rawinsondes
(sensors attached to weather balloons) in advance of a parachute jump, collecting and relaying real-time upper level wind data to jumpmasters.
Observational dataset available over the study area includes hourly average observations from eleven surface monitoring stations/sites, and upper-air data from two rawinsondes
, all of them located in NW Iberian Peninsula (Figure 1).
Types of observations used in the analysis include land surface observations of surface pressure; ocean surface observations of sea level pressure and winds; sea level winds inferred from backscatter returns from space-borne radars; conventional upper-air data from rawinsondes
(e.g., height, temperature, wind, and moisture); additional sources of upper-air data including drop sondes, pilot balloons, aircraft winds; and remotely sensed information from satellites (e.g.
We launched rawinsondes
into six storm systems and made detailed measurements that included ice crystal structure and snow accumulation.
Until commercial aircraft started carrying atmospheric sensors, balloon-borne instruments called radiosondes (now referred to as rawinsondes
) were the most practical way to get vertical profiles of temperature and moisture aloft.
(1) Since wind measurements are obtained by GPS tracking, the instruments are also rawinsondes
observations are assimilated into numerical weather prediction models, rawinsondes
are released from all sites at the same times each day, most often at 0000 and 1200 UTC.
As defined here, the snow level exists below the freezing level, on average, by an altitude of 233 m based on comparisons between snow-level sensing radars and rawinsondes
(White et al.
The data sets and observed variables used in North American regional reanalysis included rawinsondes
(temperature, wind, and moisture), dropsondes (temperature, wind, and moisture), pibals (wind), aircrafts (temperature and wind), surface (pressure), and geostationary satellites (cloud drift wind) .
IPC provided funding for the WMI seeding aircraft as well as several ground-based instruments (i.e., precipitation gauges, radiometers, rawinsondes
, Agi ground generators, AINC, Boise State University snow sampling).