Health professionals have feared vaping might act as a gateway to regular smoking - or prompt young people to see smoking as socially acceptable, referred to as "renormalisation
The launch of the first smokefree beach was backed by ASH Wales Cymru, whose chief executive, Suzanne Cass, said: "We know that seeing smoking highly influences young people and it is imperative we do anything we can to stop the renormalisation
of smoking and keep our next generation away from tobacco.
In this respect, the renormalisation
group turns out to be a powerful technique.
group analysis of the phase transition in the 2D Coulomb gas, sine-Gordon theory and XY-model," Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, vol.
Through their employment in combinatorics on one hand and connection to the Yang-Baxter equation on the other, Rota-Baxter algebras found their way into mathematical physics, in particular the renormalisation
of quantum field theories  and, most recently, integrable systems .
Health minister Professor Mark Drakeford claims introducing the restrictions will protect children from the risk of "renormalisation
" of smoking.
Tresser, "Iterations dendomorphismes et groupe de renormalisation
," Journal de Physique Colloques, vol.
In the integrals (20) the radii [[rho].sub.k] = 0 when G is convergent at [rho] = 0, and [[rho].sub.k] [not equal to] 0 are small radii of circles centered at [rho] = 0 when G is divergent at [rho] = 0 and a special renormalisation
procedure has to be applied.
The formulation of the RG most suitable for the study of turbulence appears to be the Exact Renormalisation
Group (ERG) due to Wilson [8, 9]; see, for example, .
Transport equations for variables k and [epsilon] in the RNG k-[epsilon] model, which is derived from Navier-Stokes equations using the renormalisation
group theory (Yakhot, Orszag 1986) can be written as:
The constants in the obtained asymptotics involve some rationnal-valued intersection numbers whose generating function, up to some renormalisation
, satisfy Painleve's equation I([d.sup.2]f/[dq.sup.2] + f [(q).sup.2] = q, see ) and can hence be recursively computed (see last lines of ).