The included angle [alpha] between resultant force
F and feed direction cutting force [F.sub.f] is equal to:
It is a measure of the out-of-phase time relationship between an impact and the resultant force
transmitted to the supporting body.
Thorax pendulum testing achieved nearly identical [R.sup.2] values for peak deflection and resultant force
. Further investigation into the work energy of the pendulum test demonstrated that the two models experienced nearly the same changes in energy between impacts.
i) phase dependence of the resultant force
, found as a phase superposition of repulsive and attractive forces averaged in the transverse dimension along the width of the ISAS in the interval y[member of] [-b, b]
Therefore, in the present study, the resultant force
of the bungee cords was assumed to be constantly equal to gravity.
This model comprises a centroid motion caused by the resultant force
and rotation around the centroid caused by the resultant moment.
Suppose L([+ or -][L.sub.x], [+ or -] [L.sub.y], [+ or -] [L.sub.z]) represents the coordinates of the rotor in the body frame; then the resultant force
moment of the rotors [M.sub.t] = [[[M.sub.x], [M.sub.y], [M.sub.z]].sup.T] can be expressed as
The difference is caused by the different assumption of interslice resultant force
. Our method assumes the vector of interslice resultant force
is parallel to slice base, while Janbu assumes the position of interslice horizontal force, Morgenstern-Price assumes a function relationship between interslice horizontal force and shear force, and Spencer assumes the dip of interslice resultant force
is a constant.
Furthermore, the resultant force
in the tensioned steel bars has developed from elastic strains in the steel.
Figure 4 shows a lap-shear specimen with a FDS joint idealized as a rigid cylinder with the radius a under the applied shear resultant force
Figure 9 shows the change of direction and magnitude of the resultant force
in the valve guide during valve motion for both push and pull directions.
According to the definition of the spring force and the linear viscous damping force, the resultant force
[F.sub.iner] can be obtained from