Impaired axonal transport is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells
(RGCs) and their axons, resulting in visual field loss and eventually irreversible blindness.
The eyes' retinal ganglion cells
, which integrate information from photo-receptors to the brain, are lost as glaucoma progresses.
Recently, our group demonstrated that long-distance axonal regeneration was achieved when retinal ganglion cells
(RGCs) were exposed to macrophage-derived factors along with genetic deletion of the phosphatase and tensin homolog gene and increased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in those neurons (2).
Subjects covered here include depression, the genetics of neuropsychiatric diseases, prions, neural synchrony in behavior, brain maps, retinal ganglion cells
, chemosensory receptors, vasopression and oxytocin research, and the search for a human self-regulation system.
Light first encounters the retinal ganglion cells
. These nerve cells have long tails that bundle together to form the optic nerve and send messages to the brain about what the eye detects.
The output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells
whose axons form the optic nerve.
NGF is produced and used in an autocrine/paracrine fashion by Retinal Ganglion Cells
(RGCs), Bipolar and other retinal cell types (horizontal and amacrine cells, MUller glia) .
Ginkgo biloba extract was shown to protect the mitochondria from oxidative stress and thereby might rescue the retinal ganglion cells
PD is associated with not only the death of pigmented dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, but also a loss of neurons in other areas, such as the dopaminergic amacrine cells, retinal ganglion cells
, and cells higher visual areas (e.g., lateral geniculate nucleus, cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert, and visual cortex) .
"The retina is an exquisitely organised structure, where the precise arrangement of cells in relation to one another is critical for effective visual function." The team used a piezoelectric inkjet printer head, which expelled so-called glia cells and retinal ganglion cells
from adult lab rats through a single nozzle less than one millimetre (0.04 of an inch) across.
In the present study, we focused on the period when the first neurons, the retinal ganglion cells
(RGCs), are generated from proliferating neuroepithelial cells, in order to characterize the relative spatial distribution and magnitude of proliferation, differentiation, and cell death in embryonic chick and mouse retinas.