Effects of predation environment and food availability on somatic growth in the Livebearing Fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Pisces: Poeciliidae).
Predation environment predicts divergent life-history phenotypes among populations of the livebearing fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora.
Differential mortality drives life-history evolution and population dynamics in the fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora.
Some species, such as Olomina Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora and the Bishop Olomina Brachyrhaphis episcopi, occur along an elevational and ecological gradient from lowland coastal streams to mountain headwaters, and therefore have populations that occur in vastly different environments (Johnson and Belk, 2001; Jennions and Kelly, 2002; Jennions and Telford, 2002).
rhabdophora in northern Costa Rica differ in terms of predation pressure, with low-elevation populations occurring with numerous piscivorous predators and highelevation populations devoid of piscivorous predators, typically due to the presence of barrier waterfalls that occur between high- and low-elevation populations (Jennions and Telford, 2002; Johnson and Belk, 2001).
Hierarchical organization of genetic variation in the Costa Rican livebearing fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Poeciliidae).