Extensive Tension Pneumocephalus Complicating Continuous Lumbar CSF Drainage for the Management of CSF Rhinorrhoea
. ORL 2003; 65(4): 215-8.
The most common adverse events (up to 30%) were cough (64%), nasal congestion (36%) and rhinorrhoea
Initially, nasal congestion and rhinorrhoea
develop, followed by wheeze, coughing and dyspnoea.
, allergic conjunctivitis and sinusitis were reported by 39.3%, 16.4% and 8.2% of asthmatic children, respectively.
Dr Dar informed the president that SKZN Hospital was providing modern neurosurgery facilities to patients of brain and spine tumours, vascular malfunction (aneurysms), cerebrospinal fluid (rhinorrhoea
), traumatic brain and spine injuries and sciatica (slipped discs) both through conventional and minimally invasive procedures.
21 Bleeding from ear/ nose 36 CSF+ Otorrhoea 10 CSF Rhinorrhoea
22 Abbreviation - *Loss of Consciousness, +Cerebrospinal Fluid.
Mentioning that Rhinitis is triggered by allergens that can be found both outdoors and indoors, he said it is characterized by nasal symptoms including rhinorrhoea
(runny nose), sneezing, and nasal blockage and/or itching, the condition was said to be often associated with ocular symptoms.
Inflammatory mediators cause mucosal oedema that leads to nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea
and stimulation of sensory nerves, which can cause reflex sneezing.
It is defined as symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, itching in nose and rhinorrhoea
caused by Ig-E mediated allergic reaction against inhaled allergens and it also involves mucosal inflammation11.
Other complaints were decreased level of consciousness, decreased vision, vomiting, hearing loss, acromegalic features, numbness, proptosis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea
, altered behaviour, ataxia, blindness, dysphagia, oculomotor nerve palsy, diplopia, vertigo, monoplegia, post-auricular discharge and tinnitus.
Other cases, including unilateral procedures, chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis (CRSwP), tumours, mucocoeles, fungal sinusitis, trauma, access procedures, CSF rhinorrhoea
, and revision procedures, were excluded, to reduce confounding factors.
Though cranial nerve palsies, visual changes, and headache are the most frequent symptoms, (5) rarely adults can have CSF rhinorrhoea