Fluorescent dye rhodamine 123
probe (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to analyze the mitochondrial membrane potential.
number 309825) to rhodamine 123
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), ascorbic acid, Folin and Ciocalteu's phenol reagent, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), nonyl acridine orange (NAO), Hoechst 33258, 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), rhodamine 123
(Rh123), and Naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) were purchased from SigmaAldrich (St.
Promastigote forms were treated with OGSA at 100,450, or 900 [micro]g/mL for 24 h at 25[degrees]C and incubated with 1 [micro]L (5 mg/mL in ethanol) rhodamine 123
(Rh 123; Sigma-Aldrich, St.
MTT cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay kit, Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay kit, Rhodamine 123
, Trizol, RIPA lysis buffer, enhanced BCA protein assay kit, and SDS-PAGE gel quick preparation kit were purchased from Beyotime.
Chen, "Increased rhodamine 123
uptake by carcinoma cells," Cancer Research, vol.
(a cationic fluorophore) was used to monitor the mitochondrial membrane potential due to its accumulation inside the cells.
Mitochondrial function was determined by measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential via rhodamine 123
(Rh123), as described in .
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Rhodamine 123
, propidium iodide (PI), and other chemicals were obtained from Sigma (St.
The C3435T mutation in the human MDR1 gene is associated with altered efflux of the P-glycoprotein substrate rhodamine 123
from CD56+ natural killer cells.
This initiates intracellular [O.sub.2.sup.-] production and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) is oxidised by the neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) to rhodamine 123
(RHO) releasing a fluorescent green signal which can be measured by flow cytometry.
4.3 kDa), Rhodamine 123
, aluminium hydroxide gel, acetic acid (purity 99%), formaldehyde, sodium borohydride, sodium hydroxide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, sodium iodide, methyl iodide (Sigma, USA), Sodium carbonate Sigma ultra and phosphate buffer solution (sodium phosphate dibasic Sigma ultra, 99%) were used as procured without further purification.