Chettle's letter prefixed to Munday's translation of II Gerileon of England (1592) defends Munday's version by demeaning the reputation of the rival translator's publisher, identified by Turner as Abel Jeffes.(11) Jeffes is criticized as a ballad-seller who employs 'a whole Armie of runnagates' to distribute the 'ribauld
songs' with which he infects 'the Youth of this flourishing Commonwealth', degrading the excellent science of printing with 'odious and lasciuious ribauldrie'.(12) As Turner/Wright insists, in Kind-Heart's Dream Chettle is therefore returning to battle with Jeffes.(13) If so, it is almost inescapable that in Anthony Now-now Chettle both speaks for and gently mocks his older friend.