The poorly digestible carbohydrates, such as nonstarch polysaccharides, resistant starch, nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs), and polyphenols, are source of various sugars including glucose, galactose, rhamnose, and rutinose.
The carbohydratehydrolyzing enzymes of colonic microbiota promote the fermentation of prebiotics, and these produce hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and SCFAs.
Rutin (also known as vitamin P or rutoside) is a flavonol glycoside found in many plants and fruits , resulting from the combination of the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose.
Indeed, upon oral administration, the disaccharide is cleaved, and quercetin is liberated, so that rutin's anti-inflammatory actions appear to be due to the quercetin-mediated effects via the inhibition of the proinflammatory chain triggered by TNF-[alpha]-induced NF-[kappa]B activation .
Other sugars involved are glucose, rhamnose, xylose, arabinose and the disaccharide rutinose.
Unlike other flavonoids, flavan-3-ols are generally found in the free rather than in the glycosylated forms.