Under low luminance conditions, our visual system is limited to gather our surroundings by capturing differences in luminance using the rod cells only (monochromatic; scoptic
Such ridicule of persons with a disability, which seems cruel to modern sensibilities, was widespead in antiquity; familiar in the grotesque costumes and gestures of Attic comedy, it is found, for example, in the scoptic
epigrams of Lucillius and Nicarchus, and elsewhere in Palladas.
In the final essay by Jessica Wolfe, "Chapman's Ironic Homer," the author turns to the first complete English translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey and explores the various motives behind Chapman's eagerness to identify the "ironic" and "scoptic
" qualities found in both poems.
Hall is excellent and exciting (though not alone) when he focuses on the functions of manipulative staging and plotting and of visual symbolism, what Hall calls "the scoptic
Many of Barnes's texts written between 1913 and 1915 depict the celebrity interview as a perilous encounter dominated by scoptic investigations that code exploration and speculation as masculine.
When the reenactment of the drama of feminist activism is restaged as a drama of scoptic power, the question becomes whether there is a space for feminine resistance in the realm of the specular (more specifically, in the pages of the New York World Magazine or in the genre of performative journalism).
There is another element to be considered as we examine scoptic relations in Barnes's piece.
(15) Doane complicates Mulvey's binary opposition between active gaze and passive image with another opposition between proximity and distance: "for the female spectator there is a certain overpresence of the image-she is the image." Woman is associated with an overwhelming presence to itself of the female body, and within a psychoanalytic paradigm, woman cannot achieve the distance from the image necessary for the masculine scoptic strategies of voyeurism or fetishism.
George Chapman's translation of Homers Iliad and Odyssey, the first complete English translation of the Greek poet, pays assiduous attention to what the translator calls the "ironic" and "scoptic" qualities of both poems.
Chapman's commentaries constitute a large-scale effort to establish both the kinship and the difference between ironic and scoptic speech and to justify the literary and ethical fitness of each trope.
Versed in classical concepts of irony as defined by Aristotle, Plato, Cicero, and Quintilian, as well as in discussions of Homeric irony found in Greek and Byzantine rhetorical works, Chapman understands irony as concealed blame, a mode of reprehension that complements but also diverges from the blunter, and thus more easily identifiable, rebukes offered up by the scoptic speaker.
Chapman's enthusiasm for ferreting out the ironic and scoptic passages of Homeric epic reveals in particular the influence of Eusthatius, the twelfth-century Archbishop of Thessalonika and author of a voluminous commentary on Homer that Chapman might have read in the 1540-42 Bladius edition, published at Rome, or (more probably) in the lengthy excerpts cited and paraphrased by Jean de Sponde in his 1583 edition of Homer.