For example, hot-and-cold redox batteries and devices based on the Seebeck effect
are not possible to simply bury them inside a heat source and exploit them.
Here, a continuous voltage arises due to the Seebeck effect
, and if the circuit is closed on an external load ([R.sub.e] in the figure), an electric current flows.
To overcome the trade-off between current density and the skyrmion velocities, the solution based on the spin Seebeck effect
[13, 14] and spin wave [15, 16] (SW) are proposed recent years.
This power generation capability stems from the Seebeck effect
, which was discovered originally by Alessandro Volta in 1787 and rediscovered independently by Thomas Johann Seebeck in 1821 .
At present, thermoelectric power generation modules based on bulk [Bi.sub.2][Te.sub.3]-based materials are more used for microenvironmental cooling and local precise temperature control using the Peltier effect (the inverse effect of the Seebeck effect
) [IO, Il].
A first order mathematical expression of the Seebeck effect
for each line is the following:
The heat absorption into the TEC cold side, [[??].sub.Cold], may be formed using the Seebeck effect
Harvesting Thermal Energy: Thermoelectric energy harvesters work on the basis of the Seebeck effect
. Here a voltage is produced depending on the temperature difference at the junction of two dissimilar conductors.
Thermoelectric conversion is based on the Seebeck effect
, which causes electrical energy to be generated when a temperature gradient is applied to thermoelectric elements.
The Seebeck effect
and Seebeck coefficients describe the relationship between voltage and temperature in conductors.
Furthermore, the combination of the thermoelectric effect termed the "Anomalous Nernst Effect,"(4) appearing due to the ferromagnetic properties added to the cobalt alloys and the spin Seebeck effect
, have improved the thermoelectric conversion efficiency by more than 10 times.