The result of the infamous 'Meiji High Treason Case' was Suga's execution in January 1911 together with eleven male comrades, including Kotoku Shusui
who was her lover and the intellectual leader of the Meiji anarchists.
Opponents of war included the socialist Kotoku Shusui
(1871-1911) and the Christian Uchimura Kanzo (1861-1930).
This perspective is enabled by examining Japanese and Russian non-state intellectual relations (which prominently involved such major figures as Saigo Takamori, Lev Tolstoy, Peter Kropotkin, Kotoku Shusui
, Arishima Takeo, Futabei Shimei, Vasilii Eroshenko, and Tokutomi Roka), challenging Western modernity as the master narrative for international history involving modern Japan and substituting an "anarchist history" of modern Japan.
The paper was run by socialist activists, most notably the anarchist Shusui
Kotoku [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1871-1911), who was executed by the Japanese government for allegedly plotting to assassinate the emperor.
Zhongxian Guo and Shusui
Cai, Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi, 17 (1997) 108.
History tells us of a number of incidents where people who were socialists were killed by the authorities: for example, Kotoku Shusui
and 23 others were executed for high treason in 1911; Osugi, Noe and his six-year-old nephew were all beaten to death in 1923; Kobayashi Takiji, the prominent writer and communist, was tortured to death in 1932.
And last, of course, insurrectionist anarchists provided a pretext for massive crackdowns on labour and the left: just to go back to Japan in 1911, 26 anarchists were executed for treason against the emperor and most of them had nothing to do with insurrectionism: Kotoku Shusui
, the key figure in Japanese anarchism, who promoted anarcho-syndicalism, was among the victims.
Personal Letters to Kotoku Shusui
dated 11, 12 and 16 May 1910, in C.