A good proof of that was provided by the accounts and the menu in the Vilnius residence of Sigismund II Augustus, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, who ruled the Duchy of Lithuania from 1554 to 1572 (Dambrauskaite 2018a; 2018b).
Another piece of valuable and very interesting information provided by historical sources focuses on from where, how much, and what kinds of fish were delivered to the kitchen of Sigismund II Augustus and his retinue in the VLC in the mid-16th century.
Magnus was sincerely afraid that the Polish administrator in Trans-Dvina Livonia Jan Chodkiewicz might attack the Courland Bishopric on the orders of Sigismund II Augustus.
On June 24 an analogous ceremony was held in the Kremlin to endorse the three-year (from the ratification of the treaty by Sigismund II Augustus) truce with Poland-Lithuania; on June 25 the Tsar and the Boyars' Duma decided to start an open war with Sweden.
The castle's 136 16th century tapestries, ordered from Brussels by King Sigismund II Augustus, are its most valuable collection.
The crowning red marble Sigismund chapel holds the sarcophagi of Sigismund I, his son Sigismund II Augustus, and Queen Anna, daughter of Sigismund I.
However, the initiation of relations with England, the war in Livonia, and subsequently the failed negotiations for Ivan's marriage to the sister of Sigismund II
Augustus, and eventually war with the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth, and the mediation of the Papacy in the negotiations for the truce of Iam Zapol'skii leading to the end of the war with Poland-Lithuania, launched Russia on a far more adventurous diplomatic course.
After the death of Sigismund II
Augustus, the last of the Jagiellonian Dynasty, the Sejm was called to elect a new king.
According to a later account by Ivan the Terrible himself, he had believed Duke Johan of Finland to be dead, and wished to force Sigismund II Augustus to exchange his sister Catherine for the Polish-Lithuanian territories in Livonia.
For Russian diplomacy, the possible truce had more relevant reasons, like the imminent eclipse of the Jagiellon dynasty, the death of Sigismund II Augustus without a direct heir, and the interregnum which should follow and present the Russians with an opportunity to influence the election of the King to their own ends and gain concessions, probably even partial or full annexation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; whereas participation in the election process entailed a suspension of hostilities.
Throughout his colorful career, Dudith's corresponding partners were famous scholars and thinkers, dignitaries of the Church, and some of the most powerful rulers of Europe, such as Ferdinand I and Maximilian II of Austria, and Sigismund II
Augustus of Poland.
Et Moskoovia poolelt oli oodata repressioone ja Poola-Leedu olukord oli Sigismund II
Augusti surmaga juulis 1572 alanud pikaajalise interreegnumi tottu vaga segane, laks suur osa moisamehi edaspidi taas Rootsi poolele, kus ka koik ilma igasuguste karistuste voi piiranguteta vastu voeti.