The decrease in feed intake resulted from high content of erucic acid, bitter taste of sinapine
, and an astringent effect in mouth due to tannin [4,5].
Seeds and its bioactive compound, Sinapine
thiocyanate, For CCl4-induced liver injury," Journal of Functional Foods, vol.
The use of canola meal derived from double zero, low-glucosinolate, and low-erucic acid varieties of rapeseed in monogastric animal nutrition is limited due to the low energy content available and the presence of anti-nutritional factors, including glucosinolates, sinapine
, phytate and dietary fiber components, such as tannins or non- starch polysaccharides (Khajali & Slominski, 2012).
, an alkaloid derived from seeds of the cruciferous species, shows favorable biological properties, such as antioxidant and radio-protective activities.
Sinapic acid exists in both free and ester form; some esters are sinapoyl esters, sinapine
(sinapoylcholine), and sinapoyl malate [8, 9].
The decrease in the body weight or the feed intake despite the graded levels of the meals used in the researches were associated to cellulose fractions and antinutritional factors such as glucosinolates, phytic acid, sinapine
and tannin for the CM (Liang, 2000; Khajali and Slominski, 2012), and were related to higher amounts of cellulose in diet for the SM (Janssen and Carre, 1985; Villamide and San Juan, 1998).
FFM also contains anti-nutrive compounds such as glucosinolates, tannins, phytic acid and sinapine
(Matthaus and Zubr, 2000).
Kurylo et al., "Identification of a CYP84 family of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase genes in Brassica napus and perturbation of their expression for engineering sinapine
reduction in the seeds," Plant Physiology, vol.
Among these compounds, sinapine
, the choline ester of 3, 5-dimethyl-4 hydroxycinnamic acid (sinapic acid) is the most common of all phenolic esters in canola seeds.
Institut fur Pflanzenbiochemie (Halle/Saale, Germany) has patented a method for influencing the sinapine
content in transgenic plant cells and plants.
, the choline ester of sinapic acid (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamoylcholine), is the predominant phenolic ester in canola meal (Kozlowska et al., 1990).
In addition, RSM in the diets could decrease feed consumption because of high content of erucic acid and the bitter taste of sinapine