In describing Singaporean English as a close relation to Malaysian English, Leimgruber (2013:120-1) posits that due to the shared history pertaining to the birth of Malaysia and Singapore, the ethnic composition of Singapore and, hence, the core linguistic knowledge of its people is similar to that of Peninsular Malaysia, its closest neighbour, albeit in different proportions.
Malaysian and Singaporean English Discourse Particles: Some Empirical Studies
8) As Singaporean English has many similarities with Malaysian English, and due to the sparse research on Malaysian English discourse particles, research conducted specifically on the discourse particles of these two related varieties of English is discussed to provide a brief background of work previously done.
The children in these families speak Singaporean English as their first language, but have been exposed to Hokkien, Teochew, Mandarin, and Cantonese as well.
Mahmee, the mother in Kwa's novel, speaks in a Singaporean English
, while the two prostitutes and Wu Lan often use standard and even bookish-sounding English.