Available evidence across various aquatic phyla, including annelids, sipunculids
, molluscs (bivalves and gastropods), crustaceans, and fish, supports the view that impaired oxygen supply capacity in aquatic ectotherms is the primary thermal limitation at low and high temperatures (Portner 2002, Portner et al.
Alternatively, metabolic depression occurs through the coordinated suppression of ATP-generating pathways (Guppy and Withers, 1999) and has been observed in diverse organisms exposed to acidified seawater, including corals (Nakamura et al., 2011), sipunculids
(Reipschlager and Portner, 1996), mussels (Michaelidis et ai, 2005), crabs (Carter et al., 2013), and scallops (Schalkhausser et al., 2012).
macronemus feed over sand like other mullid fishes, thrusting the pair of sensory barbels on the chin into sand to reveal the usual prey of small crustaceans, polychaetes, and sipunculids
. They are unusual for goatfishes in foraging as well over reefs, flicking their exceptionally long barbels into reef interstices, and flushing prey (mainly small fishes) into the open.
In the stomachs of both species, crustaceans and teleosts were the dominant prey items, and molluscs, polychaetes, echinoderms, and sipunculids
were found in lower abundance.
, and cephalopods were found with high importance in summer samples.
Chondrites could have been produced by polychaetes, sipunculids
or even arthropods (Osgood, 1975; Savrda, 1992), although traditionally this ichnogenus is interpreted as made by sessile vermiform organisms that explored the surrounding substrate with a retractile proboscis-type organ or another tubular appendage (Simpson, 1957; Shourd and Levin, 1976).
Kyukichi Kishida (1888-1968) was a Japanese zoologist who studied morphology and systematics of various groups of animals including spiders, mites, pseudoscorpions and other arachnids, myriapods and insects, as well as sipunculids
, birds and mammals.
Besides the prey groups mentioned for kelp bass, the diet of barred sand bass were sipunculids
, cumaceans, and echinoderms.