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2) 'Previously, this was far from the case, and there was an even greater difference during the Soeharto era', he said, regarding the treatment of traders.
As the established dominance of public road-building companies and the Ministry of Public Works was upset by the emergence of powerful political business families in the latter part of the Soeharto era (most notably the Soeharto children), the author shows how the hybrid of state leadership and private rent-seeking through capture of licences, concessions and state funding was to provide the central problem for post-Soeharto presidents in their attempts to resolve Indonesia's infrastructure chaos.
Panji Adhikumuro Soeharto, President Director at PT AIR, said: Our partnership combines the mature and proven OpenHydro tidal turbine technology and project development capability, with PT AIR local expertise in relation to the Indonesian tidal environment and development process.
After tensions between the military and President Sukarno over his support for the communists culminated with the still unattributed assassination of six generals in September 1965, Major General Soeharto sidelined Sukarno and established the military as the dominant institution in the country, coordinating an anti-communist campaign that resulted in the killings of between 500,000 to 1 million suspected communists (Ricklefs 2001; Roosa 2006).
General Prabowo Subianto, the former son-in-law of the dictator Soeharto, made a strong challenge --some in Indonesia think he represents a return to the order of a previous time.
After Soeharto was deposed in 1998, PPPs also became the main approach to infrastructure development in Indonesia.
After a brief review of the Japanese occupation 1942-45, he describes how Catholicism survived in the independent Republic of Indonesia during the Sukarno regime 1945-65, and regained a new dynamic during the religious revival of the New Order of Soeharto.
The country has not built any new refineries since 1994, when former president Soeharto inaugurated a refinery in Balongan, West Java.
Among other known state guests who planted saplings at the garden included President of Republic of Indonesia General Soeharto, Head of State of Turkey General Kehan Evern, Prime Minister of Malaysia Dr Mahathir Bin Mohammad, President of Socialist Republic of Romania Nicolae Ceausescu, President of Iran Hojjatoleslam Akbar Hashmi Rafsanjani, President of UAE and ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al-Nahyyan, President of Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Chandrika Bandaranike Kumaratunga and President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai.
The two areas that we are visiting are FELDA Soeharto and FELDA Sg.
But under Soeharto, who became the president between 1965 and 1999, there was an attempt to create a unified Indonesian identity by banning Chinese language, celebrations and even Chinese names.
In this research woody aboveground biomass measurements are done in secondary forests in East-Kalimantan, Indonesia, in three locations: Bukit Soeharto (secondary forest), KRUS (secondary forest) and PT REA (secondary forests nearby and inside an oil palm plantation).