The compound was isolated and characterized from the leaves of Solanum nigrum
Linn, a plant widely used in traditional medicines.
With respect to biomass, no significant differences between control (0 [micro]M Cd) and Cd-treated samples were observed in leaves and stems, while a significant decrease was observed in roots at 50 [micro]M Cd[Cl.sub.2] (Figure 2A), probably caused by the high accumulation of Cd in roots (Table 1); this reduction in roots has been reported in the Cd hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum
(Yan et al., 2015).
Furthermore, 1 of the commonly cited wild hosts, Solanum nigrum
L., is a cultivated vegetable (African nightshade) in Tanzania and may be at risk.
Ghosal, Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of total extracts and stereoidal saponins of Solanum xanthocarpum and Solanum nigrum
in paracetamol indced hepatotoxicity in rats, Pharmacologyonline, 1, 757 (2009).
Remarks: Hassan et al., (2017) reported only a female specimen of this species from Rawalakot at an elevation 1637m on 09.v.2015 and also presented the preferable habitat of this species as Solanum nigrum
near standing water.
Previous studies on some common vegetables consumed in Swaziland determined and reported the levels of vitamin A, iron, calcium, zinc and manganese in raw Corchorius olitorus [Malvaceae] (ligusha), Momordica involucrata [Cucurbitaceae] (inkhakha), Amaranthus spinosus [Amaranthaceae] (imbuya), Bidens pilosa [Asteraceae] (chuchuza) and Solanum nigrum
[Solanaceae] (umsobo) [2, 4].
(black nightshade) of family Solanaceae is a herb or perennial shrub found in the area and useful for digestive disorders, corrosive ulcers and chronic skin diseases.
Consequently, Calamagrostis epigejos, Sedum species, Brassica species, and Solanum nigrum
proposed as an alternative to T.
Among the notable and important wild vegetable species in Africa is Solanum nigrum
Other Solanum plants such as Solanum nigrum
have been reported to produce solasonine and solamargine .
Direct shoot regeneration was established from leaf, petiole and nodal explants from in vitro and field grown plants of Solanum nigrum
on Murashige and Skoog (MS), and Gamborg's (B5) media containing different levels of plant growth regulator, Thidiazuron (TDZ).
The fruit of Cordia africana is also mentioned as treatment for diarrhea; the leaves of Solanum nigrum
are used to treat abdominal pain and the roots of Carissa spinarum for remedying tape worm.