The conventional Egyptian chronology (whether high or low) rests on the so-called Sothic hypothesis, wherein it is assumed that throughout the history of Dynastic Egypt the civil year was taken to be exactly 365 days long, and that as a result it slipped forward continuously across the seasons in a 1460-(Julian) year-long cycle (the period between successive heliacal risings of Sirius on the first day of the civil calendar) without a single adjustment of any sort ever.
Its date, in turn, is ultimately dependent upon the Sothic hypothesis (James et al.
The 19 selected papers consider the role of the Sacred Eye in ensuring the continuing identity of the deceased, reconstructing and re-editing the archive of seventh-century Bishop Pesynthios of Koptos/Keft, revisiting the chronology of the Middle Kingdom with lunar and Sothic
data from the archive of el-Lahun, the conceptualization of anger, the vivification formulas as a case study of the increasing emphasis on collateral and female kin in the late Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period, the function of metaphor in The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant, planned decoration in the temple of Kalabash, and other topics.
In fact, the 1,461-year period it took for the Egyptian calendar to progress all the way back to synchronicity with Sirius and the seasons became known as the Sothic
Cycle (after Sothis, the Greek name for Sirius, which was deified in the form of the Egyptian fertility goddess Sopdet).
They begin at the beginning of the Sothic
year (July 3), when the "dog star" Sirius appears as the brightest star in the sky at dawn.
Notwithstanding, the priestly order of Egypt stuck to their guns and retained their 365-day year, knowing full well that the actual 365 1/4-day year and the religious year wouldn't be in alignment again for almost a millennium and a half--1,460 years--the Sothic
year (named after Sopdet, which the Greeks called Sirius, the Dog-Star).
To be frank, we cannot even be sure of any Sothic
date, irrespective of where that star was seen.
According to the Roman historian Tacitus, the life span of the phoenix was 1,461 years, an interval that links the bird with Sirius through the Sothic
cycle of the Egyptian solar calendar.
Calculating from the date IV Peret 17 for Sesostris III's Sothic
datum, the Darnells would locate GT11 at c.
The Muslim calendar is lunar while Hebrew and traditional Chinese and Japanese are lunisolar; the Egyptian calendars (Sothic
, Senwosret, Amenhotep, Nabonassaran, and Coptic) are all solar.
86637, and (8), a similar table from Tanis, are discussed in the general survey;] (9) Papyrus Carlsberg 9; (10) Sothic
dates, i.e., Egyptian dates of the heliacal rising of Sirius (Greek Sothis); (11) the decanal clock on Meshet's coffin; (12) the Book of Nut; (13) the dramatic text in Seti I's cenotaph; (14) the Ramesside star clock; (15) Amenemhet's water clock; (16) the shadow clock in Seti I's cenotaph; (17) the zodiacs in the temples at Esna and Dendera; and (18) the statue of the astronomer Harkhebi.