[--] In the Kastli village of Aksi there is a distant and lonely field called Siberimaa 'the land of Siberia' " Saar (2000 : 169-170) suggests two explanations for the emergence of names motivated by comparison with geographically distant places: firstly, people's broadening horizons, and secondly, the stimulating effect of the Soviet era with its collective and state farms (kolkhozes and sovkhozes
), transformation of nature and propagandist commemorative names.
(22) Of those, about 10,000 were designated "second-category" kulaks who were exiled within Uzbekistan, forcibly resettled to undeveloped lands to create sovkhozes
. The first-category kulaks were exiled to the North Caucasus or to Ukraine.
Some were confiscated by local authorities, usually the heads of kolkhozes (a cooperative structure of small individual farms in the Soviet Union) and sovkhozes
(farms organized by the state on land confiscated from former large estates), quite often for personal use and under false pretenses, with related paperwork falsified to show that the cattle had died due to natural causes (APRK 1947b).
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the lands of a number of kolkhozes and sovkhozes
in the Sevastopol region were disintegrated between their former employees.
He called on the remnants of the several hundred thousand Polish Christians whom he had previously placed in the Gulag or in Asian sovkhozes
and allowed them to form a Polish army to fight the Germans.
Additionally, each community house had to carry out visual agitation tasks in the local agricultural organizations and also take care of topical banners and calls at the working locations of kolkhozes or sovkhozes
. In addition, the inspectors of the Committee for Organizations of Cultural Education (89) acquainted themselves with the reports on the cinematic and dancing evenings, with the educational level, social class and overall views of the workers of community houses.
The Kyrgyz state could not even pay the subsidies for kolkhozes (collective farms), sovkhozes
(state farms) and factories.
Dans le monde rural, qui represente les deux tiers de la population d'Ouzbekistan, les fermes collectives ou d'Etat (kolkhozes et sovkhozes
) ont ete brutalement affectees par le manque de liquidites, de sorte que les salaires pratiques se sont trouves a la fois devalues (7) et partiellement demonetarises puisqu'ils etaient, quinze ans apres l'independance, encore frequemment regles en nature (huile, farine, etc.) plutot qu'en argent liquide.
(1) The survey was implemented between November 2002 and February 2003 in three Russian provinces with different climatic and political characteristics (Rostov, Nizhnii Novgorod, Ivanovo), conducting face-to-face interviews with 142 managers of large corporate farms (former kolkhozes and sovkhozes
), 223 independent peasant farmers, and 202 operators of commercially oriented household plots.
For more detail on these categories and subcategories, let us take the example of the summary table established in 1966: the housing complaints concern dwellings that are too small, unwarranted expulsions, a lack of comfort; the agricultural questions concern problems arising in the kolkhozes and sovkhozes
, support for kolkhozes, taxes paid by the rural population, and so on; complaints linked to the police concern the obligation to carry a passport (propiska); arbitrary arrests, refusal to record requests and complaints; questions linked to the army concerned conscription, searches for lost soldiers, and others; justice questions concern requests to review legal decisions, inquiries that were taking too long, and the like.
Ainsi, des la fin des annees 1940, de gros efforts ont ete faits dans ce sens avec notamment un grand nombre d'etudes monographiques sur le quotidien des pratiques dans les Kolkhozes et les Sovkhozes
. Par ailleurs, a la fin des annees 1960, l'etude ethnographique du present sovietique est affirmee avec force par le tout nouvel homme fort de la discipline et concepteur de la theorie de l'etnos, Julian V.
During the decades of the Soviet regime, Russian agriculture was dominated by large collective and state farms (kolkhozes and sovkhozes