A must-try adventure is Capisaan Cave in Kasibu, the Philippines's fifth-longest cave system and considered as a geologist's paradise with its rare calcite formations, sharp, pointed stalagmites, stalactites and speleothems
arranged in amazing sequences.
Among their topics are the stratigraphic and pottery sequence of Trench B1: a first approach to investigating ceramic and chronological associations, the chipped stone industries: a general presentation, Neolithic bone and antler artefacts, radiogenic strontium isotopes from the burials, wood charcoal analysis from sediments, and speleothems
from Alepotrypa Cave: towards climate reconstruction.
and Rowberry, M.D.: 2014a, The use of damaged speleothems
and in situ fault displacement monitoring to characterise active tectonic structures: an example from Zapadni Cave, Czech Republic.
Mattey, "Stable isotope microsampling of speleothems
for palaeoenvironmental studies: a comparison of microdrill, micromill and laser ablation techniques," Chemical Geology, vol.
Matter, "Changing moisture sources over the last 330,000 years in Northern Oman from fluid-inclusion evidence in speleothems
," Quaternary Research, vol.
(2017b) reported botryoidal calcite speleothems
associated with pyrite and abundant bladed-euhedral barite in small-scale fracture-controlled cave systems in Silurian Aeronian carbonate rocks exposed in Kalana quarry, Central Estonia.
Due to the formation of molten carbon dioxide in the water, the carbon ions in the cave contain carbon dioxide, which is lost due to heat, decrease in pressure, and evaporation, and CaC[O.sub.3] collapses to form cave structures such as stalagmites and stalactites, which are also known as speleothems
(stalactites and stalagmites) are formed when rainwater enters the cave after passing through plant debris and carbonate bedrock (limestone).
In the walls and speleothems
surrounding these deposits, there are traces of red and black paintings, of which the only distinguishable motif is an anthropomorphic motif.
Experimental natural philosopher, Adam Walker wrote how pouring acid onto limestone caused a chemical reaction, "the effervescence was excessive strong," and he made an early suggestion as to the formation of speleothems
, arguing that the rain soaked through the overlying earth and oozed through cracks in the limestone "imbibing or dissolving fine particles in their descent" leaving the "stony particle" in place as the water enters the cave.
They aimed at the integration of the 'archives of nature' (tree-rings, speleothems
) as well as 'archives of humans' (chronicles, supplications) in order to challenge deterministic models of human-environment interaction.