Some teachers may object that Standard American English
is not used throughout the text: what about literacy standards?
As George Yancy insists, "the medium" must "be the message" in African American discourse, and Bambara wastes not a word of the tale: because the very language itself exists in tension with so-called Standard American English
, the entire fabric of the text speaks the author's "Lesson" to the dominant culture (275).
Should one assimilate to American culture, as immigrants before, and learn and use only English; should one reject Standard American English
and retain one's affiliation with the country of origin by maintaining one's use of that language or dialect; or should one adopt a middle road, becoming bilingual/bidialectal and code-switching (Wheeler & Swords 2004) between Standard American English
when expected in professional and academic settings and maintaining the home language/dialect in private or informal situations?
However, in agreement with Wassink and Curzan's (2004) call for commonality, the present study will use African American English and Standard American English
terminologies, which are the current norm in the research literature.
In many ways, the relationship between standard American English
and the Gullah language found in the South Carolina and Georgia sea islands is the case study most similar to the English/ Gikuyu relationship.
* The Reference section also includes a substantial library of authoritative and classic books on English usage, including The Columbia Guide to Standard American English
, Fowler's The King's English, The Elements of Style, and The American Heritage Book of English Usage.
The Columbia Guide to Standard American English
: "Commas separate words in a series (a horse, a dog, and a cow); note that American English prefers and many editors require the comma after dog."
Its characteristics overlap with those of other dialects, including Southern White Vernacular English (SWVE) and Standard American English
I tried to make it slang free, in standard American English
Price (1993) examined the speech of four black students from poverty-stricken families who could readily shift from Black English Vernacular to Standard American English
. He noted that the four had extensive expository writing experiences and nurturing teachers and families, had enjoyed reading and backgrounds of reading good literature, and had career goals.
And let us recognize an obvious but often overlooked reality: Standard American English
(SAE) is not the native language of African Americans, even though a kreolization of SAE is the language we grow up with and use on a day-to-day basis.
(7.) A related problem is social pressure against the use of Standard American English