submucosal graft augmentation for rectocele repair: a randomized controlled trial.
In the in vivo study, at first, the higher concentrations of 3-10 [micro]g/mL DOE significantly and dose-dependently promoted the zebrafish subintestinal
vessels (SIVs) area to sprout new capillaries.
As the cells of this Zebrafish contain green fluorescent proteins, the endothelial cells of the vasculature in both the intersegmental blood vessels (ISVs) at 48 hpf and subintestinal vessels plexus (SIVs) at 72 hpf can be easily observed using a fluorescent microscope (He et al.
Abbreviations: CHKA, 3a-cinnamoyloxy-9/5-hydroxy-ent-kaura-16-en-19-oic acid; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; Kdr, VEGF receptor 2; Ang, angpiopoietin; Tie, angpiopoietin receptor; HUVECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PE, petroleum ether; EtOAc, ethyl acetate; BuOH, n-butanol; Aq, residual aqueous; EAP, endogenous alkaline phosphatase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; CCK, cell counting kit; ISVs, intersegmental blood vessels; SIVs, subintestinal vessels plexus; AKT, protein kinase B; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
The intestine is surrounded by a narrow subintestinal coelom and is held in place by mesenteries (Fig.
2A), and their oral components attach to the aboral wall of the subintestinal coelom (Fig.
The coelomic epithelial cells are cuboidal at the connection between the septa and aboral wall of the subintestinal coelom (Fig.
In addition, PNS was also shown to promote changes in the subintestinal
vessels in zebrafish as a feature of antiangiogenesis effect.
Results: At 20 [micro] M, rhein could almost completely block intersegmental blood vessels formation at both 48 and 72 hpf, and completely inhibit subintestinal vessel plexus formation at 72 hpf.
For better documentation of the blood vessels in embryos, Tg(fiila:EGFP)y1 zebrafish embryos were used to observe the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Proteins (EGFPs) which are expressed in all endothelial cells of the vasculature in intersegmental blood vessels (ISVs) and subintestinal vessel plexus (SIVs) at 48 and 72 hpf, respectively, after drug treatment at 24 hpf (Lawson and Weinstein 2002; Raghunath et al.
ballantinei (Sommerfeldt and Schrodl, 2005) or the subintestinal
ganglion of H.
The location of the subintestinal
vessel in adult lancelets is in an enlarged area of extracellular matrix of the dense connective tissue type in Rahr's nomenclature (6).