That shows attendance by top leaders is down by almost half from previous NAM summist
. The Chinese Xinhua news agency said that 64 heads of state (kings and presidents) and heads of government (prime ministers) attended the 1992 NAM summit and that 63 attended in 2003.
Phrases are taken randomly, not just from the responsio--as with the summist
of the previous century, Vincent of Beauvais--but also from the prefatory quaestio and the arguments "for and against" (ad ...
(9) See Jonsen and Toulmin, "High Casuistry: Summists
and Jesuits," in The Abuse of Casuistry (1989), 139-51, where the authors chronicle the zenith of european casuistry under the Jesuits.
The early penitentials come out of a monastic context, the summists are, with some exceptions, either Franciscans or Dominicans, persons closer to the laity.(62) The summae are handy compendiums of all the information a confessor need know, especially canon law.
From the earliest years of the penitential discipline in the patristic age confessors made no clear distinction between the judicial forum and the sacramental institution.(122) Even a man as liberally educated as Alan says of those who persist in sin that "the ecclesiastical judge should not ignore" this fact, "but ought to give a strict judgment (districtum judicium) according to the sacred canons and the regulations of the fathers, so that others may fear ..."(123) By no means is Alan the most legal of summists. Yet he wants to determine the precise juridic status of the penitent.(124)
Guided by Aquinas, and relying heavily on John of Freiburg, Antoninus drew on a wide array of canonists and summists
, through them appreciated the classics, and took into account contemporary writers ranging from Catherine of Siena and Lorenzo Ridolfi to Petrarch and Bruni.