To which purpose serveth the opening, and well-balancing of trade; the cherishing of manufactures; the banishing of idleness; the repressing of waste, and excess, by sumptuary laws
; the improvement and husbanding of the soil; the regulating of prices of things vendible; the moderating of taxes and tributes; and the like.
These clothes and trinkets they were wearing were as fine and dainty as the shrewdest stretch of the sumptuary laws
allowed to people of their degree; and in these pretty clothes, she crying on his shoulder, and he trying to comfort her with hopeful words set to the music of despair, they went from the judgment seat out into the world homeless, bedless, breadless; why, the very beggars by the road- sides were not so poor as they.
The guests were now seated at the table laden with the first course, which they ate as provincials eat, without shame at possessing a good appetite, and not as in Paris, where it seems as if jaws gnashed under sumptuary laws
, which made it their business to contradict the laws of anatomy.
Various sumptuary laws
passed by Louis XIV after 1679, and the melting of silver plate, proved the impetus for a rapid geographical expansion of faience manufacture, not least in Rouen and in Moustiers and Marseille in the south of France.
In chapter 3, Campbell deftly explains how food became a marker of social and cultural capital as the new nobility rose among the ranks and how science (in the form of health manuals), the church (in the form of Christine doctrine), and the state (in the form of sumptuary laws
and other regulations) provided the necessary scaffolding for food to be perceived as ontologically tied to social class status.
James Madison complained about "fripperies," and John Adams praised sumptuary laws
. What would people want when they could have more than their ancestors could ever have dreamed?
limited its use to the aristocracy, while the lower classes made do with lesser fibres.)"It must've looked wonderful, especially in the candlelight in which it was most likely viewed," she said.
They discuss governmental, judicial, religious, and familial sources; the estini; urban planning and physical structures; public health; the regulation of food and sumptuary laws
; economy and demography; bankers, financial institutions, and politics; civic institutions; conflicts; government; the ruling classes; the church, civic religion, and civic identity; confraternities and civil society; mendicant orders and the repression of heresy; the university; vernacular language and literature; literary culture; miniaturists, painters, and goldsmiths; and art and patronage.
But secular and Church officials targeted secular limenas with particular venom, noting their luxurious and ostentatious dress, lax morals and profane customs, as Walker explores in Chapter Seven, "Controlling Women's Bodies and Placating God's Wrath: Moral Reform." These accusations continued a long-standing tradition reflected in earlier sumptuary laws
regulating clothing worn by racial or ethnic groups, and criticism of Lima's veiled women, or tapadas (a critique that anticipates contemporary debates about Muslim dress).
The consumption of silk was restricted both by its price and the sumptuary laws
of medieval Livonia.
Moreover, the author's analysis of these specific texts is situated within an impressive historical and critical framework; starting in the late medieval period with brief considerations of 14th-century sumptuary laws
and writers such as Christine De Pizan, she draws parallels between descriptions of women's public appearances from the 15th-century works of Leon Battista Alberti to late 19thcentury capitalist society.
Geisst argues that early sumptuary laws
were intended to stem excessive temptations to buy, but such restrictions were replaced by a concept of consumption as aspiration, exemplified by the "American Dream" in the twentieth century.