As a suspension feeder
, the prediction was that the radula may be more important (longer relative to body size) for younger animals, as younger animals are likely to also graze the benthos whereas adults primarily suspension feed.
In many areas, only one species, Fenstrulina rugula--a suspension feeder
that belongs to a group that's often referred to as moss animals--was present, making it one of the simplest seabed systems to be found anywhere.
However, the research also demonstrates that the Tamisiocaris had evolved into a suspension feeder
by modifying its grasping appendages into a filtering apparatus that could be swept like a net through the water trapping small crustaceans and other organisms as tiny as half a millimetre in size.
The unstalked ascidian Pyura stolonifera is a facultatively active suspension feeder
(sensu LaBarbera, 1984) as it can actively pump water through its branchial basket by using its cilia, but its orientation and siphonal arrangement also induce passive flow.
Here we address how flow affects the growth rates and the associated morphological responses of an active suspension feeder
by studying colonies of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea along a gradient of extremely rapid flow in a tidal channel in southwest Ireland.
The marine gastropod Trichotropis cancellata (order Neotaenioglossa, family Capulidae) has previously been considered a suspension feeder
, generating a feeding current and collecting suspended particles using its ciliated ctenidium (Yonge, 1962).
Metridium senile is a passive suspension feeder
, while M.
In both sharks and whales, some species evolved into suspension feeders
and became gigantic, slow-moving animals that in turn fed on the smallest animals in the water," Dr Vinther said.
However, the newly discovered fossils show that those predators also evolved into suspension feeders
, their grasping appendages morphing into a filtering apparatus that could be swept like a net through the water, trapping small crustaceans and other organisms as small as half a millimetre in size.
Five different trophic groups of macrozoobenthos were distinguished in the study range: omnivores, detrivores, carnivores, herbivores, and suspension feeders
Benthic suspension feeders
are recognized as being important components of shallow marine ecosystems, where they are capable of moving large quantities of particles from the water column to the benthos (Ribes et al.
are also negatively affected due to their higher sensitivity to the decomposition products of oil together with the effect of clogging of their filtration system by oil particles (Tedengren & Kautsky, 1987; Berge, 1990; Kiorboe & Mohlenberg, 1981).