Guido Sprenger traces the implications for ecological understanding of ongoing transitions from swidden agriculture
to coffee cultivation and from animistic practice to Buddhism in upland southern Laos.
appears as a constant culprit of deforestation and thus a target of policy interventions from the colonial times.
said swidden agriculture
had been practiced for centuries in the Philippines, with indigenous farmers roaming mountainous areas to farm, leaving their fields to lie fallow for years before returning and planting crops.
In relation to maize cultivation in particular, what was in the process of becoming consolidated was the very thing referred to by Fox (1977:77) some half a century later as he sought to account for the similarities between Timor and Sumba and the notable exception of the palm-tapping economy of Roti Island: 'It is not swidden agriculture
per se that accounts for the precarious subsistence base of the peoples of Timor [...] but the historical creation of a monolithic form of swidden overly dependent on maize'.
Although this group reportedly seeks shelter in the limestone caves and rock shelters of the sinkhole during the rainy season, they inhabit permanent houses and practice swidden agriculture
at other times of the year, and therefore cannot in a technical sense be called foragers.
Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea trifida L.) landraces in swidden agriculture
systems in Brazil.
In his study of subsistence change in Java, he stated that, in ecological terms, the most distinctive positive characteristic of swidden agriculture
, and the characteristic most in contrast with wet-rice agriculture, is that it is integrated into, and when genuinely adaptive, maintains the general structure of the pre-existing natural ecosystems into which it is projected.
Scott's argument contests a Whig interpretation of history (a progressive and inexorable sequence of stages, ever more complex and advanced), which would see hill peoples and their lifestyles (swidden agriculture
, illiteracy, constant mobility, sparse populations, thin social structures, and small governmental apparatuses) as "traditional" societies, reminders of who we once were, "barbaric" spaces where civilization has not yet arrived.
KEYWORDS / Action Research / Amazon / Farmer Knowledge / Land Management / Peru / Swidden Agriculture
While many authors have emphasized Hmong movement south from China as resulting from persecution, Gary Yia Lee (1985/86) argues, in contrast, that most Hmong moved south in search of fertile land for conducting swidden agriculture
and growing opium, with the mass movement of Hmong beginning in 1810-1820 (see, also, Culas and Michaud, 2004).
They practice swidden agriculture
to grow a variety of crops suited to the different environments found on their mountainside: mangos, chiles, and sugar cane in the warm lowlands and corn, beans, coffee, and potatoes in the highlands.
Now, deprived of a reliable income and encouraged by the government to reduce traditional swidden agriculture
(a form of shifting slash-and-burn rice cultivation), descend from the highlands and embrace a more cash-crop-oriented economy, some Akha face new difficulties in adapting to the lowlands.