New insights into the evolution of Passiflora Subgenus Decaloba (Passifloraceae): Phylogenetic relationships and morphological synapomorphies
. Systematic Botany 38(3): 692-713.
Data of phenetic analysis through osteological characters does not relation Anastomus of any other genus, but it also ensures its monophyly, as observed by the present study, having as synapomorphies
the characters 11 (body of the ectethmoid, condition 0, vestigial) and 30 (intercotilaris crest of the mandible, condition 1, inconspicuous) (VERHEYEN, 1959).
Recently, phylogenetic analyses of Lychnophorinae using morphological and molecular data (Loeuille et al., 2015a, b), indicated that this subtribe is monophyletic when it includes the Centratherinae and Sipolisiinae subtribes and small Blanchetia and Gorceixia genera, furthermore, putative chemical synapomorphies
reinforce this idea (Lusa et al., 2017).
Such differences in row addition suggest that homology assessment should not be done in LTRF as a whole but instead between presence and absence of individual rows among taxa; and as a consequence, that the value of LTRFs as synapomorphies
in systematic studies must be assessed with the aid of ontogenetic series.
(2011), optimizations are as follows: characters 36 (plumose setae on coxae) and 37 (plumose setae on trochanters) emerged as homoplastic synapomorphies
that support the clades (Lasiodora + Nhandu + Proshapalopus + Pterinopelma + Vitalius) and (Acanthoscurria juruenicola + A.
Stephomyia is a monophyletic genus, supported by eight synapomorphies
, five homoplastic: ovipositor shorter than abdomen (19), none lateral facial papillae (27), abdominal dorsal spines absent (30), gall longer than large (37); and three non-homoplastic: male circumfila sinuous (8), gonostylus short and triangular (10), female cerci: completely fused (23).
Several characters have been proposed as synapomorphies
for Trichoptera and these are listed by Holzenthal et al.
of Cryphaeaceae outlined in the present analysis were, at least partially, associated with the position of Cryphaeophilum molle at the base of the family.
Four Neotropical species originally placed in Ceratothripoides were re-assigned to the genus Retanathrips, based on 3 synapomorphies
not shared with the Old World forms.
Higher level classification of phyllostomid bats with a summary of DNA synapomorphies
. Acta Chiropterologica 18:1-38.
New genera should be defined based on monophyly and, ideally, characterized by morphological (as well as molecular) synapomorphies
. Where adult morphology fails to provide such synapomorphies
, larval features may provide additional characters that will help to define closely related groups or genera.
The absence of claws on digits IV and V of both manus and pes may represent synapomorphies
at some level within the Archosauria, perhaps at the level of Pseudosuchia to the exclusion of Phytosauria.