Lee (2001: 176) rephrased it as that "apomorphy-based definitions delimit taxa rigorously by specifying a diagnostic synapomorphy
(homology) and a type [taxon]," which shows that the apomorphy-based definition pinpoints the (hypothesized) most recent common ancestor of a specified descendant ("real" species) and all of its other descendants that share a synapomorphic (or homologous) character with the specified descendant (Fig.
The loss of the prolateral trichobothrium is an unambiguous theridiine synapomorphy
Distinctively in the genus Uebelmannia, the three recognized species possess radially elongated hypodermal cells up to 200 [micro]m high (Mauseth, 1984; Nyffeler, 1998), probably a synapomorphy
for the genus even though they have been also observed by Mauseth (1999) in Esposica guentheri (Kupper) Buxbaum, Cleistocactus st rausii (Heese) Backeberg, Weberbauerocereus longicomus.
In a cladistic study by Scharff & Coddington (1997), Eustala is sister to the doublet Wixia O.P.-Cambridge 1882 plus Acacesia Simon 1895 within the subfamily Araneinae, but that relationship depended on a single homoplasious synapomorphy
. Their study used genera as terminals and so did not include genus-level autapomorphies, but Eustala has two (the anteriorly-directed scape and cone shaped median apophysis) that would likely plot as synapomorphies of the genus.
The remaining Ericaceae form a monophyletic group, with the synapomorphy
of anthers inverting early in the development of the flower (char.
Character 31: The character state "a close association between the conductor and embolus, usually coiling together", a synapomorphy
of Tetragnathidae (Hormiga et al.
This character is a synapomorphy
of the Chloroleucon alliance, with a reversal in Enterolobium schomburgkii (Fig.
Both Leucauge and Alcimosphenus differ from all other tetragnathids by having two parallel rows of trichobothria on the fourth femur, which appears to represent a synapomorphy
. Alcimosphenus differs from Leucauge by having the anterior eye row straight; whereas Leucauge has the anterior eye row recurved (Simon 1895).
Clearly, given the distribution of the character in extant cycads, medullary bundles are derived and in fact not only are a synapomorphy
of the extant genera, Macrozamia, Lepidozamia, and Encephalartos, but also place the fossil genera possessing medullary bundles with them.
The possibility of synapomorphy
is excluded for the ventrally spiny male abdomen, and the ultrastructure of these modified setae among normal setae is not even similar (cf.
A transition in Dwarf Shoot Axis (character C) from "obvious" to "evident but obscured" forms the synapomorphy
that distinguishes all other members of the Utrechtiaceae from Utrechtia.
18); the loss of these spigots is considered a synapomorphy
of Erigoninae (Miller & Hormiga 2004).