It is a multifactorial systemic disease with symmetrical distribution affecting the synovial joints
.18 More than 50% RA is being contributed by genetic influence.19 The aim of this study was to find the significance of gene expression of IL-18 in RA patients in context with our local population, so that approach towards the treatment of patient should be scrutinized.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disorder of synovial joints
characterized by progressive softening and disintegration of articular cartilage accompanied by osteophytes, cyst formation, sclerosis in the subchondral bone, mild synovitis, and capsular fibrosis1.
Diarthrosis, or synovial joints
, are freely movable, and generally, the ones that will eventually wear down on a hard-charging dog.
Hyalosyn[TM] Gel is a sodium hyaluronate viscoelastic solution in a syringe for long-term effect on improved joint mobility, suitable for intra-articular injection into all synovial joints
. Hyalosyn[TM] Gel is manufactured by unique biotechnological synthetic fermentation, ensuring a high purity with no microbiological residues.
This proved that the polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel could be used in synovial joints
for medical purposes.
OA is usually associated with synovial joints
(diarthroses), also known as the freely moveable joints .
The most common anatomical location is the knee joint, specifically the suprapatellar pouch, although cases have been described in many other synovial joints
like the hip, shoulder, elbow, wrist and ankle.
OA is a chronic degenerative multi-factor disease that can affect all components of the synovial joints
(Kim et al., 2001; Uchoa de Rezende & Constantino de Campos, 2012), where hyaluronic acid (HA) plays an important role in the disease adaptation process.
Viscosupplements are injected by a licensed medical professional into synovial joints
to replenish the natural cushioning within joints that depletes with age and degenerative orthopedic diseases, causing pain.
To assist in resolving this ambiguity, we describe an in vitro model that possesses three important properties: 1) It is a closed system that mimics the sealed environment of the synovial joint
in vivo; 2) It contains de-nucleated fluid and 3) It reproduces both a cracking phenomenon and subsequent refractory period identical to that which is seen in real synovial joints
Kane, "Greyscale and power Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of normal synovial joints
: correlation with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors," Rheumatology (Oxford), vol.