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While about 60 percent of the 259 wax and 350 pollen samples did show the presence of at least one systemic pesticide, almost all were found at levels well below what is considered lethal to honey bees.
Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces experimental clinical characteristics of PD.
As of 2006, there were 115 active registered products containing imidacloprid, a systemic pesticide. Instead of killing on contact, it is taken up by plants through irrigation or soil application.
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For larger trees it is best to hire an arborist to apply a systemic pesticide, typically the chemical imidacloprid, either into the soil or directly into the stem of the tree.
Even armed with the systemic pesticide cygon or the biological control Bacillus thuringiensis (sold as biotrol, dipel, or thuricide), you may be fighting a losing battle.
He mentioned yet another systemic pesticide, Assail, produced by Nippon Soda Co., Ltd., which is newly registered for experimental use on grapes, and said he expects to be trying it out during the 2003 season.
One approach is to use a systemic pesticide such as ivermectin, that can be administered orally.
The more tenacious pest is whitefly, and the options for dealing with this range from biological controls that include ordering parasitic wasps to heavy-duty systemic pesticides, with the risk of harm to beneficial insects.
During foraging, honeybees are exposed to pollutants deposited on plants and from systemic pesticides. Most honeybees and their food are contaminated by spray applications that bees fly through or by residual pesticide left on foliage or floral parts (especially pollen).
The Philippines, for example, hosted a conference on how bees can be protected from systemic pesticides in Marinduque from May 16 to 19.

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