During interludes in the opening ceremony, a man delivered monologues from a horse that referenced, according to Safarov, the Persian Ta'ziyeh
, a form of passion play for mourning.
is one of the most significant traditional performing arts of Iran, also referred to as the "Shi'i Passion play" in Western literature (Chelkowski, 1984:45).
The religious play which is called Ta'ziyeh
(the mourning play) and recounts Imam Hossein's martyrdom through a rich body of prose and poetry has even been staged in reputable theater halls in many western countries like France, in addition to many Near, Middle and Far East countries and in Central Asia and Africa.
(15) For more information on ta'ziyeh
performances and related arts, see Chelkowski (1985) and Peterson (1979).
In addition to describing music ideology through social stratification of sound, Beeman examines how ta'ziyeh
, a popular passion drama, is organized so as to avoid possible religious criticism.
Chelkowski, PJ 2005, 'From Karbala to New York City: ta'ziyeh
on the move', The Drama Review, vol.
Related programs feature concerts by Persian classical musician Bahman Panahi and The New Juilliard Ensemble, a unique film depicting the Islamic musical drama tradition known as the Ta'ziyeh
and art-making workshops for children and adults.
Peter Chelkowski, "Time Out of Memory: Ta'ziyeh
, the Total Drama," Drama Review 49:4 (Winter 2005): 15-27.
Chapter 3 elaborates on the socio-cultural expansion of the Muharram rituals, particularly in their ta'ziyeh
dramatic form, under the Qajars and how they were performed by various civic associations in temporary and permanent ritual sites (e.g.
And among the most unusual entries was the centuries-old Iranian theatrical form Ta'ziyeh
, described as the "only form of indigenous music drama in the Islamic world," fusing music, drama and minor spectacle (homes, camels!) to celebrate an epochal event in Islamic history.