Before, they were not designed to cope with the windload but to withstand the windload." This was the case with American suspension bridges before the doomed Tacoma Narrows bridge
As an example, Petroski cites the case of Washington State's Tacoma Narrows Bridge
, which shook apart in high winds just a few months after opening in 1940.
In the half century that followed, many larger and lighter structures were constructed without any major wind-related problems--until the fateful collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge
in Tacoma, WA, on November 7, 1940.
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge
in Washington State collapsed due to the effects of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV), where vortices are formed and shed on the downstream side of bluff bodies or rounded objects in a fluid current.
He discusses ancient and primitive bridges, and modern bridges in the UK, France, and North America, with special discussion of John Roebling, the Brooklyn Bridge, deflection theory, the Golden Gate and Bay Bridges, the disaster of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge
in 1940, the Severn Bridge in the UK, Japan's Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, Denmark's Storebelt Bridge, and the Millennium Bridge in London.
In other words, how to stop external forces causing the columns to resonate to the point of destruction, as seen in the failure of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge
in the US in 1940.
Like the Tacoma Narrows Bridge
, where private industry got together and said, "We'll build this thing for you, but we get to collect the tolls."
But the transition between the two is like that Tacoma Narrows Bridge
- "Galloping Gurdy" - that the winds twisted and tore apart back in 1940.
Lawrence River, 1905), and Tacoma Narrows Bridge
(Tacoma, Washington, 1940), which achieved notoriety because the catastrophic collapse was captured on an amateur's movie camera.
Although the calamity that befell the Tacoma Narrows bridge
has not been repeated, some cable-stayed bridges have suffered wind-induced trouble of a novel kind.
Hobbs Ph.D., Catastrophe to Triumph: Bridges of the Tacoma Narrows is a fascinating examination of the true story behind the Tacoma Narrows Bridge