Bilirubin is a tetrapyrrole
produced primarily by the normal breakdown of heme from haemoglobin following the removal of red cells by the spleen.
Application of exogenous amino acid improves plant growth by increasing the concentration of photosynthetic pigments (ALA is a common precursor to tetrapyrrole
) [23, 24], as well as antioxidative enzyme activities .
Most widely tetrapyrrole
derivatives can be used as photosensitizer as it provides safe and effective formulation of nanoparticles.
Due to the effects of heme oxygenase (HO), which contain two forms: HO-1 and HO-2, cyclic tetrapyrrole
heme is divided into biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and ferrous iron ([Fe.sup.2+]).
Among the vast family of organic ligands used in constructing MOFs, porphyrins are a family of biologically relevant tetrapyrrole
Interaction of FLU, a negative regulator of tetrapyrrole
biosynthesis, with the glutamyl-tRNA reductase requires the tetratricopeptide repeat domain of FLU.
(1) Assembly of 4 pyrrole rings forms the tetrapyrrole
ring protoporphyrin, a precursor of several organic molecules.
Caramori et al., "Cyclic tetrapyrrole
based molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells," Energy & Environmental Science, vol.
Hanack, "Phthalocyaninatometal and related complexes with special electrical and optical properties," in Metal Complexes with Tetrapyrrole
Ligands II SE-2, J.
In those cases of severe hemolysis haptoglobin becomes saturated and free hemoglobin or its iron-containing tetrapyrrole
is filtrated through the glomerulus where its toxic effects include instability of tubular epithelium membranes, activation of caspases/cathepsins, denaturation of DNA, and mitochondrial injury as a summary of a complex pathogenesis [3,15].
Green or red: what stops the traffic in the tetrapyrrole
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring to form the water-soluble 1-carbon fragment as carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and abiliverdin , which is reduced by biliverdin reductase to bilirubin (lipophilic linear tetrapyrrole
), a compound with potent antioxidant capacity, abundant in blood plasma .