Eventually, the tissue will die and even undergo thanatosis
, leading to anastomotic leakage., In contrast, the risk of leakage is greatly decreased with a reduction in anastomotic tension due to fixation of the peritoneum to the intestine above the anastomotic portion.
Score Infiltrate Extent of inflammatory infiltrate 0 Normal/physiologic None 1 Minimal elevation Single or rare, scattered foci 2 Expanded within or beyond Patchy, moderately lamina propria abundant 3 Crypt abscesses or Extensive submucosal involvement 4 Diffuse Inflammatory cells in the gut lumen Score Goblet cell mucin Nature of mucosal depletion changes 0 None None 1 Minimal Minimal deterioration 2 Moderate More deterioration 3 Extensive More thanatosis
4 N/A N/A Table 4: Expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines (pg/ml, mean [+ or -] SD).
When presented with threatening stimuli, males often feigned death (thanatosis
) by becoming immobile and depressing their antennae.
When threatened, the grass snake shows several defence mechanisms: feeing, aggressively hissing, secreting a stinking substance from the anal glands and even feigning death (thanatosis or akinesis) by turning its head upside down, sticking out its tongue sideways from the mouth (Figure 1) and, in exceptional cases, even squeezing out a droplet of blood from the mouth.
(45) This last description perfectly resembles a grass snake performing thanatosis (Figure 1).
Best American Poetry 2013 chose ELIZABETH HAZEN'S "Thanatosis
" (Volume 97, no.
Not only did the female spiders end mating sooner with an inedible gift, but male death feigning (thanatosis
) - which is triggered by the female attempting to end mating and run away with the gift) - occurred in half of the matings involving an edible gift, but only once with a worthless gift.
In the present study, we focused on the death-feigning behavior (thanatosis, tonic immobility) exhibited by the sweetpotato weevil Cylas formicarius; this trait was used as a model of antipredator behavior.
Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis.