If the temperament of the larynx is damp, he says, but without the "influence of humor"--by which he presumably means that the four humors
or temperaments are not in balance--the voice will be dark, obscure, and confused, (13) but if it is damp with a balance of humors, it will be rough or hoarse.
Do the four elements "correspond to the four humors
of the Galenic body" (21)?
The scientific debunking of false beliefs is as relevant today as it was when skeptics took a good look at bloodletting, alchemy, and the balancing of the four humors
in the pursuit of good health.
The relationship between the four humors
and the psychological play of feelings and desires is only analogical, yet Kant adheres to the symmetrical division of the four temperaments without authorizing their designation according to chemical blood mixture.
Lazure says April Fools Day is all about humiliation and notes that in the medical field the four humors
were identified as black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood.
Whether it be attempting to reconstruct the Milan medical milieu with which Leonardo was familiar, or his influence on portraiture drawing on the theory of the four humors
, or his tangential connection with early nature printing, the authors treat their subject with the requisite critical distance.
Capitalizing internet reminds me of 18th-century writers who would sprinkle capitalized words throughout their work--such as Honor or Shame or the Four Humors
so popular in medieval physiology.
Seen in the context of Renaissance scientific thought, an artist of Arcimboldo's background, education and stature would have certainly understood the importance of the four elements, as well as the four seasons, in relationship to the four humors
(also discussed in last month's Clip & Save Art Notes about Albrecht Durer's Melancholia I).
Our current understanding of the four humors
, by contrast, is almost entirely abstract and theoretical.
In truth, it is astonishing to behold, through a remarkable group of works on loan, the longevity of the posture of melancholy in painting, sculpture, and graphic arts across centuries during which the meaning of melancholia was continually reinvented: as frenzy, frustration, or despair; as a malady with natural causes (the imbalance of black bile, one of the four humors
, according to Hippocrates); as a divine affliction and a cosmic source of creative inspiration or genius, and of heroic deeds; as a realm of the tormented psyche populated by demons; as a force of nervous debilitation (first subjected to modern clinical observation during the late nineteenth century by Charcot); as a spiritual or philosophical preoccupation with death.
Daily life in the information society does not keep muscles toned and backs strong and the four humors
in proper alignment.
Hippocrates believed that health depended on the proper balance of the four humors
(or fluids) of the body: blood, phlegm, bile, and black bile.