The text in question is entitled "Frenchmen, Some More Effort if You Wish to Become Republicans," and it was included, in ostensibly random fashion, by Marquis de Sade in the fifth dialogue of his Philosophy in the Boudoir, which started to circulate, as an anonymous pamphlet in two small volumes, in France during the second half of 1795, just over a year after the so-called "Thermidorian
Reaction" put an end to Robespierre's Reign of Terror (Sade 2006, 104-49).
The perception of what was learned in the 1780s about the tension between representative government and international commerce did not amount to a Thermidorian
For Brinton, delirium in the Russian case meant the Red Terror of Civil War; the New Economic Policy (NEP) to him was a Thermidorian
After murdering tens of thousands of their fellow citizens --by guillotine, noyades (mass drownings), and cannonades(group execution by cannon and explosives)--Robespierre and 21 of his top Jacobin executioners during the French Revolution's Reign of Terror were themselves summarily arrested, during the Thermidorian
Reaction of July 1794, and sent to the guillotine--by their fellow revolutionists.
Forget the French Revolution as a model: The so-called Thermidorian
Reaction, when moderates ended Maximilien de Robespierre's Reign of Terror, was an exception to the pattern of modern revolutions.
But--Charles Beard notwithstanding--the act of the constitution was not some antidemocratic, Thermidorian
counterrevolution, akin to a coup d'etat, but was instead the most participatory and majoritarian event the planet had ever seen (and lawful to boot).
The play took its name from a summer month in the French Republican Calendar, during which the Thermidorian
Reaction occurred, overthrowing Robespierre and ending the Reign of Terror.
They start against the "old order" to establish a moderate regime instead, which is followed by a radical one that witnesses a reign of terror, which in itself will be followed by a Thermidorian
reaction that restores law and order and probably most of figures of the old regime and its policies.
(43.) Such is the 'Thermidorian
' moment in the anticolonial revolution: 'all the decentralizing tendencies spring up again and triumph, and the nation falls to pieces, broken in bits' (WE, 183).
Neither the all-encompassing concept of a Thermidorian
Reaction nor a focus on forgetting helps to explain the tension between justice and politics, between the desirable and the doable, that determined the first republic's trajectory from the moral quagmire of radical revolutionary expediency to the flawed attempt to anchor the republic in constitutionalism and the rule of law during the early Directory.
The Russian Revolution for Sheila Fitzpatrick starts in 1917 and ends in 1937, and the main culprit that brought the revolution to its end was the so-called "Thermidorian
Reaction" by the new class of Stalinist bureaucrats.