# thermodynamics

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## ther·mo·dy·nam·ics

(thûr′mō-dī-năm′ĭks)
n.
1. (used with a sing. verb) Physics that deals with the relationships and conversions between heat and other forms of energy.
2. (used with a pl. verb) Thermodynamic phenomena and processes.

#### THERMODYNAMICS

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. Four basic laws have been established.

THE FOUR LAWS
First LawThe first law states that the amount of energy added to a system is equal to the sum of its increase in heat energy and the work done on the system. The first law is an example of the principle of conservation of energy.
Second LawThe second law states that heat energy cannot be transferred from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher one without the addition of energy. Thus, warm air outside can transfer its energy to a cold room, but transferring energy from a cold room to the warm air outside requires extra energy (as with an air conditioner).
Third LawThe third law states that the entropy of a pure crystal at absolute zero is zero. Since there can be no physical system with lower entropy, all entropy thus has a positive value by definition.
Zeroth LawThe zeroth law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with some third body, then they are also in equilibrium with each other. This law has its name because it was implicitly assumed in the development of the other laws, and is in fact more fundamental than the others, but was only later established as a law itself.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

## thermodynamics

(ˌθɜːməʊdaɪˈnæmɪks)
n
(General Physics) (functioning as singular) the branch of physical science concerned with the interrelationship and interconversion of different forms of energy and the behaviour of macroscopic systems in terms of certain basic quantities, such as pressure, temperature, etc. See also law of thermodynamics
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

## ther•mo•dy•nam•ics

(ˌθɜr moʊ daɪˈnæm ɪks)

n. (used with a sing. v.)
the science concerned with the relations between heat and mechanical energy or work, and the conversion of one into the other.
[1850–55]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.

## ther·mo·dy·nam·ics

(thûr′mō-dī-năm′ĭks)
The branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy.
Did You Know? It's not a bright picture. First, there is no free lunch. Second, you never get what you pay for, and third, you can't stop squirming in your seat, not until the universe freezes over. These are the three laws of thermodynamics, of how energy is transformed from one form to another. Energy can have any of five forms: physical, chemical, radiant, electrical, and thermal. The first law, often called the law of conservation of energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed; you can only convert one form of energy into another. For example, a car engine cannot create new energy, only transform the chemical energy available in its gasoline into a new form. The second law states that energy can only move from a state of higher activity to one of lower activity; it can never move from lower to higher without the addition of work. This means that heat, for example, will move from hotter areas to colder ones, but not the reverse. A consequence is that all machines are inefficient to some degree, since they must give off some waste heat. The third law states that nothing can ever be cooled to absolute zero. Since by the second law the heat from a warmer object flows into a cooler one, you could only cool something to absolute zero if there was nothing warmer around. And for that to happen, the whole universe would have to cool down to absolute zero at the same time. And what would do the cooling?
The American Heritage® Student Science Dictionary, Second Edition. Copyright © 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

## thermodynamics

the branch of physics that studies the relationship of heat and mechanical energy and the conversion, in various materials, of one into the other. — thermodynamicist, n. — thermodynamic, thermodynamical, adj.
See also: Heat
-Ologies & -Isms. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

## thermodynamics

The study of heat and heat-related energy.
Dictionary of Unfamiliar Words by Diagram Group Copyright © 2008 by Diagram Visual Information Limited
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
 Noun 1 thermodynamics - the branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different forms of energyenthalpy, heat content, total heat, H - (thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity equal to the internal energy of a system plus the product of its volume and pressure; "enthalpy is the amount of energy in a system capable of doing mechanical work"randomness, entropy, S - (thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work; "entropy increases as matter and energy in the universe degrade to an ultimate state of inert uniformity"natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"thermodynamics of equilibrium, thermostatics - the aspect of thermodynamics concerned with thermal equilibriumadiabatic process - (thermodynamics) any process that occurs without gain or loss of heatcyclic - conforming to the Carnot cycle
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
Translations
termodynamika
termodynamiikka
תֶּרְמוֹדִינָמִיקָה
termodynamika

## thermodynamics

[ˈθɜːməʊdaɪˈnæmɪks] NSING
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

## thermodynamics

[ˌθɜːrʊdaɪˈnæmɪks] n
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

## thermodynamics

[ˌθɜːməʊdaɪˈnæmɪks] nsgtermodinamica
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995

## ther·mo·dy·nam·ics

n. termodinámica, ciencia que trata de la relación entre el calor y otras formas de energía.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
IGAdeg, IHAdeg, and ISAdeg are thermodynamic functions that relate to the conditions of the experiment.
Diederichs demonstrates that when such a steady state cycling between ATP formation and splitting is reached, all involved potential thermodynamic functions of the state, for example, Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy remain unchanged, which means that no heat can be produced and/or exchanged for ATP cycling under the given conditions.
Moreover, the solubilities of NaCl, as well as the thermodynamic functions in the dissolution process of NaCl in the C[H.sub.3]OH-[H.sub.2]O binary system were also calculated for further investigation.
The primary crystallization and homogeneity areas of phases were fixed and the fundamental thermodynamic functions of ternary compounds and solid solutions were determined [20-23].
The present results show that the thermodynamic functions used in this work describe the H-Mg system in a broader pressure range more accurately than those reported by Zeng et al.
Using the modified partition function, we determined the thermodynamic functions such as free energy, entropy, pressure, internal energy, and specific heat.
Among his topics are thermodynamic functions, the quantum statistics of ideal gases, magnetic and dielectric materials, multiphase systems, and functional integration in statistical physics.
NASA RP-1271, Computer Program for Calculating and Fitting Thermodynamic Functions, NASA Lewis Research Center, NSN 7540-01280-5500, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
A preliminary phase diagram can be obtained from extrapolation of the thermodynamic functions of constituent subsystems.
After reviewing basic thermodynamic functions, two University of Pittsburgh professors delve into quantum theory, the Schrodinger equation, the quantized behavior of electrons in molecules, statistical mechanics, and the kinetic theory of gases.
The present work is devoted to the study of the polarographic reduction of quinaldic acid to determine the nature of waves, the formal heterogeneous rate constant ([k.sup.0.sub.f,h]) and the other thermodynamic functions in various buffer solutions with the variation of temperature.

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