free energy

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free energy

n.
1. A thermodynamic quantity that is the difference between the internal energy of a system and the product of its absolute temperature and entropy; the capacity of a system to do work, as in an exothermic chemical reaction.
2. A thermodynamic quantity that is the difference between the enthalpy and the product of the absolute temperature and entropy of a system. Also called Gibbs free energy.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

free energy

n
(General Physics) a thermodynamic property that expresses the capacity of a system to perform work under certain conditions. See Gibbs function, Helmholtz function
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.free energy - (physics) a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do workfree energy - (physics) a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs; "energy can take a wide variety of forms"
natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"
physical phenomenon - a natural phenomenon involving the physical properties of matter and energy
activation energy, energy of activation - the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur; "catalysts are said to reduce the energy of activation during the transition phase of a reaction"
alternative energy - energy derived from sources that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment
atomic energy, nuclear energy - the energy released by a nuclear reaction
binding energy, separation energy - the energy required to separate particles from a molecule or atom or nucleus; equals the mass defect
chemical energy - that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction
electrical energy, electricity - energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor; "they built a car that runs on electricity"
energy level, energy state - a definite stable energy that a physical system can have; used especially of the state of electrons in atoms or molecules; "according to quantum theory only certain energy levels are possible"
rest energy - the energy equivalent to the mass of a particle at rest in an inertial frame of reference; equal to the rest mass times the square of the speed of light
work - (physics) a manifestation of energy; the transfer of energy from one physical system to another expressed as the product of a force and the distance through which it moves a body in the direction of that force; "work equals force times distance"
heat, heat energy - a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
mechanical energy - energy in a mechanical form
radiant energy - energy that is transmitted in the form of (electromagnetic) radiation; energy that exists in the absence of matter
radiation - energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
More precisely, if A represents a standard thermodynamic potential which is computed in statistical mechanics when the atomic energy [[epsilon].sub.0] (p) does not depend on the temperature, let us denote by [A.sub.q] the corresponding potential for the gas of quasi-particles which is obtained from A by means of the substitution [[epsilon].sub.0] (p) [right arrow] [epsilon](p, T).
[f.sup.pure.sub.w](T, p) can be calculated if a thermodynamic potential is available that is valid at the conditions of interest, such as the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) standard for thermodynamic properties of fluid water [1, 2] or the IAPWS formulation for thermodynamic properties of ice Ih [3, 4].
Due to the dissipative property of our system, it has a thermodynamic potential, i.e.
The most important contribution for lower fuel consumption lies in the spark ignition engine sector, owing to the outstanding thermodynamic potential which the direct fuel injection provides.
The relative humidity of a human exhale through a mouthful of Hummingbird Cake (allowing that p = pressure, the force with which we breathe out; w = water content of the cake [averaging pineapple at 87%, banana at 84%, the pecans at 10%, the cake base at 30%, the cream cheese frosting at 75%]; [T.sub.c] = temperature in Celsius; a = enthalpy, a thermodynamic potential that encompasses everything from the origination of a substance to its final resting place in the end stages of entropy) is almost always:
In this approach, based on the conservation laws and the nonequilibrium thermodynamics, many independent thermodynamic state variables and thermodynamic potential functions (e.g., free energy) are defined and thus many useful thermodynamic identities that provide a plenty of relations between state variables are obtained theoretically.
In fact, as it is mentioned in [13, 25], by calculating the difference in thermodynamic potential between superconducting state and normal state, [[OMEGA].sub.s] - [[OMEGA].sub.n], we see that for [h.sub.s] > 0.7[DELTA] the thermodynamic potential of normal metal is lower than the thermodynamic potential of superconducting state, [[OMEGA].sub.n] < [[OMEGA].sub.s].
The temperature difference is the thermodynamic potential driving the process.
In constant-volume studies (McGaughey and Ward, 2003; Ward et al., 1983), the Helmholtz free energy is the thermodynamic potential of the system; however, in systems for which the pressure of one phase is controlled, such as in the case of bubble nucleation in a constant-pressure liquid, the appropriate free energy that acts as the thermodynamic potential for the multi-phase system must be determined (Ward and Levart, 1984).
Another way to derive these relationships at S has been developed by one of the authors [7] by introducing the notion of a single scalar quantity, a generating function or Massieu thermodynamic potential M from which both [f.sub.S] and [[sigma].sub.S] are consistently derived.
According to the generalization of Gibbs' relation proposed by De Donder [16, 17], and extended to the relaxation phenomena as proposed by De Groot and Mazur [27], a thermodynamic potential [psi] may be defined as a function of state variables [[gamma].bar] (controlled) and internal variables [bar.z] (microstructural) associated with the dual forces [[beta].bar] and [bar.A], respectively.
* The specific embedded intention in an IIED appears to act just like a thermodynamic potential to intelligently produce change in the needed physical processes and thus alter the basic properties of the materials involved.

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