for long-term ground freezing: used for permafrost stabilization, frozen dams, containment, etc.
), and surface foundations can be destroyed by permafrost thaw if not managed appropriately (McFadden 2000).
To address these issues, much effort has been exerted by researchers all over the world and a number of measures to cool down permafrost subgrade have been devised, including crushed stone embankment, thermosyphons
, air-cooling ducts, awnings, insulating materials, raising the embankment height, and combinations of these methods [8-12].
Vasiliev Jr, "Horizontal vapordynamic thermosyphons
. Fundamental and practical applications," Heat Pipe Science and Technology, An International Journal, vol.
as well as heat pipes have been utilized in various applications related to the electronics industry which contains a superior speed and a high level of heat generation.
Two-phase closed thermosyphons
: A review of studies and solar applications.
Several researchers have studied the application of heat pipes and thermosyphons
in solar collectors for heating water in the interest of domestic use with different configurations (Hussein, Mohamad, & El-Asfouri, 1999a, 1999b; Ismail & Abogderah, 1998; Oliveti & Arcuri, 1996).
Owing to the year-round permafrost, the building sits on a concrete slab with a system of 'thermosyphons
' that dissipate heat and prevent melting.
Buoyancy, natural convection, behavior in porous media, and behavior upon boiling are discussed before ending with applications to heat pipes and thermosyphons
, entropy minimization problems, and a chapter on gas-based nanofluids.
This edition has been revised to integrate new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer and has new data on thermosyphons
, applications, and manufacturing methods.
Common methods to remove heat from the hot side of TE modules are air or water cooling, thermosyphons
, and heat pipes.