Sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones
effectively reduce blood glucose and [HbA.sub.1c] levels, and may be used as add-on therapy in patients with T2D who do not achieve targets with metformin alone.
Pharmacological agents like metformin, thiazolidinediones
and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors have also demonstrated the potential to delay progression to diabetes and may be considered in those individuals with high risk of progression to diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk.
The researchers found that the risk of acute pancreatitis was not increased comparing 49,374 DPP-4I initiators with 132,223 sulfonylurea initiators (weighted hazard ratio, 1.01; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.24) and comparing 57,301 DPP-4I initiators with 32,612 thiazolidinedione
initiators (weighted hazard ratio, 1.11; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.76 to 1.62).
Hinds, "Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones
and PPAR y in Bladder Cancer," PPAR Research, vol.
Understanding the structure of PPAR as the molecular target for thiazolidinediones
, its functions in glucose and lipid metabolism, and nature of the binding interactions between PPAR and their agonists are indispensable for the discovery and design of new antidiabetic drugs.
Tuccori and his colleagues studied 145,806 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, defined as a first-ever prescription for thiazolidinediones
, metformin, sulfonylureas, prandial glucose regulators, acarbose, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagonlike peptide agonists, or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors.
carry a risk of bone fractures, bladder cancer, and, of special concern, cardiovascular side effects .
Sulfonylurea therapy was started by 3,570 patients (23 percent), 948 patients (6.1 percent) began treatment with thiazolidinediones
and 2,034 patients (13.1 percent) with DPP-4 inhibitors.
have been used to check the inhibitory effect of TNF-[alpha] on the differentiation of 3T3-Ll adipocytes cells.
have emerged as effective agents for antidiabetes and anti-inflammation .
(TZD) are a class of pharmaceutical agents currently used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus; they are also known as adipogenic compounds (Furrnsinn and Waldhausl, 2002).
In particular, it is not known whether newer classes of drugs for T2DM such as the thiazolidinediones
(TZDs) will have beneficial effects and only a few studies are done or are underway to answer this question and one of the most recent one is the PROactive study .