Mercury also contributes to inflammation, another contributor to CVD, by inducing arachidonic acid metabolite formation (e.g., prostaglandins, thromboxanes
Inflammation itself arises from myriad etiologic pathways, with multiple inflammatory mediators potentially involved, including histamines, cytokines, eicosanoids (for example, prostaglandins, thromboxanes
, and leukotrienes), complement cascade components, kinins, fibrinopeptide enzymes, nuclear factor-kappa B, and free radicals.
Oxylipids such as leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes
are metabolites derived from fatty acids that play critical roles in shaping the inflammatory response .
: a new group of biologically active compounds derived from prostaglandin endoperoxides.
Overproduction of thromboxanes
, she said, plays a role in this process.
synthase (TXS) is an enzyme which catalyzes prostaglandin endoperoxide into thromboxanes
Superko, "because of their involvement in the process of prostaglandins, which are vasodiltory, and thromboxanes
, which are vasoconstrictive.
Platelets have profound role in inflammation due to their release of the proinflammatory and proatherogenic mediators: CD40 ligand (CD40L) and thromboxanes
The role of magnesium appears to be associated with its function as an activator of enzymes involved in membrane transport and integrity, and with its relationship to prostaglandins - specifically, the ratio of prostacyclins (vasodilators) and thromboxanes
(some of which are vasoconstrictors), which is dramatically altered in the case of low serum magnesium.
Each section incorporates a reasonable amount of detail and in parts, uses terminology that is perhaps more suited to the level of understanding expected of an undergraduate student with phrases such as, "prostaglandins and thromboxanes
are lipid derived powerful and important mediators of inflammatory reactions," (Shankman & Manske, 2011, p.
The eicosanoids: prostaglandins, thromboxanes
, leukotrienes, and related compounds.
COX pathway is responsible for transforming arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, prostacyclins and thromboxanes
. There are two main isoforms of the COX enzyme: COX-1 (constitutional) and COX-2 (inducible).