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Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, Thyrotropin), secreted by the thyrotrope cells of the anterior pituitary, plays a pivotal role in the control of the thyroid axis and serves as the most useful physiologic marker of thyroid action.
(2004) stated that Pit-1 is an essential for development of somatotrope, lactotrope, and thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary and it transactives expression of the genes encoding GH, PRL, and TSH-b.
The circulating thyroid hormones exert negative feedback effects on the pituitary by decreasing the number of receptors for TRH on the pituitary thyrotrope cells.
TRH stimulates the pituitary thyrotrope cells to release TSH, causing synthesis and release of new [T.sub.4] and [T.sub.3] by the thyroid to maintain homeostasis.
Based on murine expression of IGSF1 protein in thyrotropes, somatotropes, and lactotropes in the pituitary gland, a role for IGSF1 in pituitary GH production and/or secretion appears likely.
Pituitary adenomas can be derived from a single mutant cell of five differentiated cell types within pituitary gland: somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotropes, thyrotropes, and gonadotropes, which, respectively, secrete growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)).