index = Diaphysis diameter - Medullary canal diameter / Diaphysis diameter X 100
Because BCS is a crude scale and somewhat subjective, future studies assessing animal weight and carpus or tibiotarsal
length could increase the ability to assess animal condition and the effects that it may have on clinicopathologic values.
The aims of this study were firstly to establish humane methods and techniques to examine, anaesthetize and sample live garden dormice in order to enable studies on genetic structure of the population, biological scales and measures such as body weight and tibiotarsal
length and to evaluate their accordance with animal welfare standards.
Results showed hypertrophy of the cranial sartorius muscle, an improvement of the tibiotarsal
joint angulation, increased calcification of myofibers, and decreased fetal myosin expression.
Zagueiro Adutor Grau II Lateral Adutor Grau I Zagueiro Acromioclavicular Luxacao Meio Campo Acromioclavicular Luxacao Goleiro Isquiostibiais Grau II Meio Campo Fascia Plantar Inflamacao Zagueiro LCA Cirurgia Meio Campo Isquiostibiais Grau II Atacante Tibiotarsal
Entorse Lateral LCA Cirurgia Grafico 1--Lesoes mais frequentes.
In all treated groups, the oedema paw volumes, up to tibiotarsal
articulation, were measured using a digital caliper at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after Carr injection.
As is the case with the current record, Durden (1990) reported that in all cases where the means of louse attachment is described, it involves the louse clinging by the tibiotarsal
claws that normally encircle the hair of the mammalian host to one or more fly legs.
The right hind limb of these rats was positioned in hip external rotation, knee extension, and tibiotarsal
joint neutral position for measurement of the distance between the proximal and distal muscle-tendon junctions using a digital caliper (Marberg, Brazil).
On day 0, for the induction of arthritis, all the animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal injections of 40 mg/kg thiopentone (0.3 mL/300 g rat) and arthritis was induced by the injection of 0.1 mL of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) containing 1.0 mg dry heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis per milliliter sterile paraffin oil into tibiotarsal
joint of the left hind paw of female rats.
The following measures were obtained from the right-half of the carcass: carcass length (using a measuring tape from the cranial border of the middle portion of the first rib to the cranial border of the pubic bone), leg length (from the pubic bone to the tibiotarsal
joint), cushion thickness (measured with a caliper, placing one end at the external part of the inner round and the other end on the external part of the leg), and arm length and perimeter (using a measuring tape from the olecranon tuberosity to the distal end of the humerus, involving the muscles that cover the region).
Articular damage was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, Sigma-Aldrich) into the tibiotarsal