16r); several versions of the Tironian
et; rounded and straight abbreviation marks in general; and the various forms of "capital" A, B, and D.
The former Tironian
Abbey, standing on the banks of the River Teifi, was once famed for its impressive library, and was even visited by Gerald of Wales in 1188.
There were, of course, other ways to have things 'coppied onely by the eare', and Frances Henderson points out, 'in republican Rome where, because of the inadequacy of the Tironian
notes, (7) the custom was to place several notarii in different parts of the senate; later they would compare notes and concoct a final, collective, fair copy'.
The various characteristics of the script that he enumerates, especially the form of the superscript <a> and the use of the Tironian
as a sign of syllabic suspension, in his opinion show that the handwriting of MS Junius 1 belongs to the 1170s and the early 1180s (Parkes 1983: 120, 122).
et is not expanded; other abbreviations are expanded in italics.
(32) For typographical reasons, the Tironian
nota (7) has been replaced with an ampersand (&) in all citations.
In addition, there were certainly two very distinct systems of writing: the temporary or ephemeral, written down on tablets--and usually transcribed by the secretary in shorthand notation, as in the famous Tironian
notes of Cicero--and that of communication and conservation.
Dipping into the book more or less at random, one comes up with such gems as the entry "Manuscripts." Here, the non-specialist learns in passing that Augustine usually dictated his works to a stenographer (noterarius) who recorded his words in a shorthand called tironian
notes, named after Cicero's secretary, M.
The manuscript appears never to have had ond or the tironian
note at line 3171b, see the excellent discussion in E, von Schaubert's Kommentar, and in view of line 2430b also with cyning in a light verse and especially because in context before line 3172b with the tironian
note, emending to [ond] kyning maenan, as is done by almost all editors and as is assumed by almost all metrists, robs the sentence (lines 3169-72) of its climactic effect: there appears here to be a larger rhetorical sequence than the single half-line unit.
There are eleven spelling variants given for and, but the commonest form is the Tironian
note 7, the function of which is often more than semantic, as it may act as a clause-initial marker, or a marker of items in a list.
Since Tiro was Cicero's slave until 53 B.C., and thereafter his trusted freedman, there is no reason to doubt the authenticity of Fronto's Tironian
text on the basis of dubious association or social status.
et used in each work is also very similar, with a slight flourish kicking upward to the right from the base of the character and a flourish curved downward from the top horizontal bar.