(101.) Master Kenikukan, Hachimoku Ryunokan [Dragon Book of Rice] (1798), in TARO ADACHI, TOKUGAWA
JIDAI KEIZAI HIROKU ZENSHU [COMPILATION OF SECRET ECONOMIC RECORDS OF THE TOKUGAWA
ERA] 371,385 (1941).
The origin of the modern inn dates back to the early seventeenth century, when the Tokugawa
nobility defeated all other provincial rulers and united Japan after centuries of internecine wars.
Toshogu Shrine was founded in the 17th century to house the remains of the founder of the Tokugawa
Ieyasu, while Rinnoji Temple is a key temple in Nikko.
Early modern ikki, "peasant revolts," have been a popular area of study both within Japan and among western scholars, with the field experiencing something of a boom in English-language publications since the mid-1980s and the publication of work by historians Anne Walthall (Social Protest and Popular Culture in Eighteenth-century Japan, 1986), George Wilson (Patriots and Redeemers in Japan, 1992) and Steven Vlastos (Peasant Protests and Uprisings in Tokugawa
Japan, 1986), sociologist Herbert Bix (Peasant Protest in Feudal Japan, 1590-1884, 1986), anthropologist William Kelly (Deference & Defiance in Nineteenth-century Japan, 1985), as well as other work by political scientist James White.
Matsuri is also a process of political integration, incorporating the Yakushi-do original shrine and the Shinmei-sha subsequent clan shrine erected by Ashina, as well as a state visit to the house of Satake, whose ancestors were the local representatives of the central government during the Tokugawa
Shogunate before the advent of the Meiji Restoration.
In the first part of the book, Howe does this in roughly chronological order by examining early European trade in the Far East, the Tokugawa
economy, the opening of Japan in the mid-nineteenth century, and early Meiji modernization.
Hanzo^O (who was based on Shimazaki's father) eagerly welcomes the transfer of power from the military Tokugawa
shogunate to the Meiji emperor.
In fact, however, Japanese homogeneity is very much a product of history, a political construct that emerged during the process of state formation and re-formation in the Tokugawa
(1600-1868) and Meiji (1868-1912) periods.
He was of the Tokugawa
family, and the shogunate remained in that family for over two and half centuries..
This volume provides a valuable and sometimes highly schematized introduction to the social and economic changes occurring in Tokugawa
Japan (roughly 1600-1867).
Gary Leupp, Servants, Laborers, and Shophands in the Cities of Tokugawa
Japan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.
With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa
sh ogunate collapsed and, with it, the entire feudal system of government.